Vol-I, Issue-I, July 2012 - Pratidhwani the Echo

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Vol-I, Issue-I, July 2012

Issues
 

1.
Shesher Kobita : Punopather Prostabona

Madhumita Sengupta
Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Assam University, Silchar
Abstract

Most of the people say, Tagore’s ‘Shesher Kabita’ is the story of Amit Roy. The question arise, who is this Amit Roy? Is Rabindranath Tagore’s   Shesher Kabita’ realy a just story of Amit Roy? We know, this Amit Roy and his revolutionary theory of devine love is note of admiration till now. There has been a lot of debate regarding its acceptability of new theory of love. As a male character, so far priority was given to Amit Roy, whether the similar importance was given to female characters?  The present paper attempts to explore the answer of these questions and review the novel with analyzing various characters.

Language: Bengali

2.
Abhijit Seneer 'Megher Nodi' : Bastobotar Nana Matra

Taniya Chakraborty
Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Assam University, Silchar
Abstract

Abhijit Sen is one of the prominent narrative writers in Contemporary Bengali literature. He is one who has stood ideologically against the inheritance of colonial model in the Bengali narrative world both in terms of form and content consciousness. Off and on, in his writings, Sen has criticized the trend of writing stories of love & sex only in Bengali fiction and pointed out that so called mainstream literature only depicts the life of growing middleclass and rich people, ignoring the struggle for existence of the common mass, their livelihood. Like Debesh Roy, Abhijit maintains the European model of novel is not useful for depicting the heterogeneity of the reality of life of the larger section of people. He says, like the Third World literature, our narrative is to stand politically and ideologically against neo-colonial attack over the heterogeneous culture of marginalized mass and for this. The present day narrative should be emancipated from the domain of time-space contactless middleclass centric story writing, and it should take the way of re-evaluating & re-constructing of myth, folktales & traditions to represent the present day reality. Depiction of reality, in Sen’s idea is a protest against the traditional way of misrepresenting time & space. When we go through a narrative discourse of Abhijit Sen,we should be conscious about the narrative consciousness of the writer can be termed as post-colonial and post-modern in Indian and Bengalee sense, otherwise, the reader may fail to find the path of entry in the narrative world of Sen, and also will not be able to understand the ideological protest against all kind of  hegemony, be it in federal productive relation or in the domain of politics & culture.
             We want to prepare a critical discourse on Abhijit Sen’s novel ‘Megher Nodi’ from post-colonial and post-modern viewpoint of literary criticism.  


Language: Bengali

3.
Rabindranather Dharma o Somajbishoyok Bhabna : Nirbacito Chithipotrer Prekkhite
Minakshi Paul
Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Assam University, Silchar
Abstract

If we follow we will see that one third of Rabindranath's Poetry are indication of expand of literature of letters. Viewing the subject variant of multiple thinking of the literature of letters, it seems that Rabindra paragraph could not get full form if he did not present it to us. In his every letters we see subject variant. Religion, Society, city life, Independence of women, Education, thinking about nature, love; nothing left in his script. All letters written by him in different time are contained in books named “Chinnopotro”, “Bhanusinger Potro”, Russiaer Chiti”. His first countable Book “Europe Probashis Potro”, describes the story of his England journey at teenage. In spite of these the number of letters which are written addressing to his wife, son, relative-friend, pal, colleague & co-operator, are not a lesser quantity; some of these are attached in the book “Chiti Patra”.Where we find Rabindranath as a human being.
         Answers toward questions of Hemantabala Devi (Beloved, personable, Hemantabala is daughter of zaminder Brojendrakishore Roychoudhury of Moimonsing District of Gouripur, & wife of zaminder Brojendrakanta of Rongpur Bhitorbongo. She left her family & had become Baishnav, and in alias name communicated with Rabindranath through writing letters, appreciated for “Sesher kabita” & thus starts corresponding by Rabindranath of miscellaneous religious &  socialism questions, we find the thinking of Rabindranath about religion & society.
          Rabindranath thinks the dirt of body clean through taking bath, but the thinking about clean of mind through taking bath is nothing but foolishness. So, estimating any community as worthless is a sin. All people in spite of different cast & creed should understand that God is devoted always for every era, not let think them personal property which degrades God. If this thinking will not become clearly known to all, till then in ‟India" Gods are degraded, Human being are degraded; never this defame will go away.

Language: Bengali

4.
Potentiality of  Women Unveiled: Microfinance......
A study on  Gobardhana Block of  Barpeta District, Assam
Bhabananda Deb Nath
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Commerce, Karimganj College, karimganj, Assam
Abstract

Privation of exposure, women cluster of our society were ignored, their potentiality and credentials never note-of for productive utilization, thus, their qualities remains unveiled. The SHG movement of microfinance (mF),bring an exception and has able to reach all over the world for her easy factors of financing , where women occupied the major share, as such, the entrepreneurial and other potentialities of this neglected cluster, become a case of concern.   Same   instance   is   in   the  Gobardhana   Block,   where   woman’s   shows   their potentialities  of  excellence  in  various  economic  activities ,  especially  in  weaving  and farming. But, to have desired result, women clients of mF are  in need of due care and attention like training, management etc. as demand by the time.
Key words: Microfinance, Potentiality, SHG, Unveil, Women.
Language: English

5.
Prevalence of Morbidity Among Women: an analysis of North Tripura and Unokuti District, Tripura

Sanjay Sinha1, Ananta Pegu2 and Sumanash Dutta3
Ph.D. Research Scholar Dept. of Economics Assam University, Silchar Email:sanjaydmc84@gmail.com1
Asst. Prof & HOD, Dept. of Economics, N.C College Badarpur, Karimganj, Assam Email:anna.pegu@gmail.com2
Prof. Dept. of Economics Assam University, Silchar, Email:duttasu2003@gmail.com3

Abstract

The study is based on primary data which are collected with the help of a structured schedule from four different castes of population spread over North Tripura District and Unokuti District of Tripura. Stratified random sampling technique was applied for the collection of data at household level where the sample units are the adult women in the age group of 18 - 55 years. All the data are collected based on the criteria of balanced representation of different social castes such as ST, SC, OBC and General in the sample. Altogether 90 samples have been collected. Main objective of the study is to determine the morbidity status and also to determine the key variables which affect morbidity status of the people of North Tripura. Binary logistic regression model has been applied to determine the key determinants of morbidity status. It has been found that age of the respondent, respondents per day calorie intake and educational level of the respondents are the key determinants of morbidity status of the respondents. The model as a whole explained between 30.6% (Cox & Snell R Square) and 41.1 %( Nagelkerke R Square). And ᵡ2 (6.460, N=90) =32.811.

Key Words:  Morbidity, Health, Body Mass Index, Chronic diseases, Seasonal diseases
Language: English

6.
ASHA- the Lady Health Activist and Health Status of Rural Women- A Case Study of Karimganj District

Suchitra Das
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Economics, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam
Abstract

Women constituting almost half of the population of a country are the major human resource and accordingly the involvment of women in every sphere - economic, social, political is urgently felt for the development of a country. Health is one of the major infrastructures to constitute a strong human resource and is emerging as a significant element of human capital and a vital indicator of human development. Improvement in the health status of women plays a very important role in the improvement of socio-economic condition of an economy.
            In India nearly 70% of the population are coming from rural areas and are suffering and dying from preventable diseases due to unavailability and inaccessibility of health care services. Among the rural population women are the most sufferer. They are trapped in poverty, malnutrition, low level of literacy, and are facing high rate of infant and maternal mortality rate with low expectancy of life at birth etc. Providing sound health care to these rural women is the urgent need and accordingly the Government of India has launched National Rural Health Mission to improve the availability of and access to quality health care by people, especially for those residing in rural areas, the poor, and women. ASHA – one of the stakeholders of NRHM play a very important role in smoothening the delivery of health care services to the rural population specially the woman. A female from a village acts as an ASHA in improvising the health condition of the rural women. The present paper is prepared with the following objectives:
1. To study how ASHA is functioning in providing health care services.
Methodology and data base:
The study will be based on both primary and secondary data. The primary data will be collected by using multistage sampling. In the first stage of sample selection 2 Community Blocks of Karimganj will be selected at random. From the selected 2(two) Community Blocks 1 Gaon Panchayat from each Blocks will be selected on the basis of simple random sampling. From each of 2 selected Gaon Panchayat 2 villages will be selected by using simple random sampling. From each village 10% of total household will be surveyed and the ASHA workers will be directly interviewed. The main sources of secondary data are the official publication of governments.

Language: English

7.
Craft Industry of a Marginalized Community and its Prospect for Rural Employment Under  Globalization
Ritumani Haloi
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Economics, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam
Abstract

Rural handicraft industry has performed exceedingly well and enables our country to achieve a wide measure of industrial growth and diversification. By its less capital intensive and  high  labour  absorption  nature,  this  sector  has  made  significant  contribution  to employment generation and also to rural industrialization. Small scale industrial sector in India create largest employment opportunity for the Indian populace, next only to agriculture. A failure to modernize the rural industrialization programme and revamp the rural non-farm and agricultural sector on the part of the government is partly responsible for the apathetic condition of some rural craft industry and “Pottery industry” of the Hira people provides a good example in this regard. This pottery industry which is given full and part time employment opportunities to a large section people belongs to a marginalized community is crippled by various problems. The real incomes of the workers associated with this profession have declined over the years instead of increasing in tandem with the growth of economy. Consequently the no. of workers working in this industry has been decreases to large extent despite its potentialities for self-employment. The paper studies the prospect of Pottery Craft industry for rural employment in Assam particularly in Karimganj district of Barak Valley and various views of Hira (Kumar) people to solve their basic problems.

Language: English

8.
Quest for Identity: A Major Concern in the Life and Literature of African-Americans
Soma Das

Asst. Professor, Dept. of English, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam
Abstract

The painful and tragic experience of the African- Americans in the United States of America led them to struggle for and establish an identity of their own. The survey of the history of the African- American people in different geographical spaces such as the African homeland, the middle passage, the American South and then the industrialized North, presents a picture where identity has been the foremost casualty in a history of displacement and migration, embittered by a conflict with the majority voice, engaged in a struggle for survival against unexpected suffering. The tragedy was that the African- American’s quest for identity began over the things for which he himself was not responsible- his black colour, his race, his ancestors, and his physic. All this led the black men to turn himself into an object. It is under such circumstances that an unending and always expanding quest for identity began. Both the African- American men and women were the victims but there is a marked difference in their approach. While the men had to fight only in terms of race and class, the women were additionally burdened with the issues of gender as they saw that it is not only the white man but also the black man who often ill-treated them or misrepresented them in the literature.

Language: English

9.
The Great Indian Revolt: A Short Deliberation
Paramita Acharjee

Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Assam University, Silchar
Abstract

A group of Indian Historians described the Revolt of 1857 as people’s revolt and regarded its leaders as national Hero’s. Further, some Indian and British Historians have termed the Revolt of 1857 as the ‘Mutiny of the Sepoys’. Opinion differs among the Historians as to the nature of the Great Revolt of 1857. I am trying to continue my brief discussion from this background in this essay.

Language: English

10.
Nature and Extent of the Aryanisation of North East India
Sahab Uddin Ahmed
Asst. Professor, Dept. of History, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam
Abstract

The ancient names of Assam were  Kamrupa  and  Pragjyotisa, which had been inhabited by the Kirata or Mongoloid people before the Aryan culture could spread its influence over the North Eastern part of India. Before the advent of the Aryan civilization, the Austric-Mongolian and Dravidian culture was the prevalent culture of the people of this area. According to some scholar, the Aryans advent in North East India was occurrence of the pre-Buddhist period. The period of the Brahmins was followed by the Buddhist period, so far as the cultural history of India is concerned. In comparatively, ancient inscriptions of Assam, we find that, the high caste Aryans like Brahmans, Shatriyas and Kalitas entered into Assam and began to settle here even during the Pre-Christian era.
           The mention of Kamrupa and Devoka in the Allahabad pillar inscription of the Gupta king Samudragupta has an important bearing on the Aryanisation of North East India. In the domain of political system, it is all probable that the ancient Assam populated by the non-Khmer group of the Austric and the Tibeto-Burman   people   was   in   tribal   state   of   society.   Narakasura   and Bhagadutta, the legendary kings of Assam were probably the first monarchical rulers  and  they were in  all probability the Aryanised  or Hunduised Mongoloid persons. In other words, the tribal political system of Assam was changed into monarchical system by the influence of the Aryan culture.

Language: English

11.
Women Literacy Rate in the Princely State Tripura: A Historical Study
Nilanjan De
Asst. Professor, Dept. of History, Rabindra Sadan Girls' College, Karimganj, Assam
Abstract

Tripura was a princely state and ruled by the rulers of Manikya dynasty for a long period. She merged with the Indian Union on 15th Oct 1949. The rulers of Tripura wanted to modernise their state and educational modernisation was only a part of it. However, that process of modernisation was started only from the last quarter of 19th century. Many schools, both primary and secondary were established during that short span of time. Nevertheless, due to its primitive and patriarchal character the ratio between the male and female literacy growth rate was not uniform. In this article the researcher tried to find out the female literacy growth rate in Tripura before her amalgamation and historically analyse the real cause behind the negligence of women education in the Princely state Tripura on the basis of various statistical records.   

Language: English

12.
Role of Various Classes in the Revolt Of 1857
Bishwajit Bhattacharjee
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Bengali, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam
Abstract

Culturally the Indians were always “one”. The Titular Mughal Emperor was there to serve as a thread of unity among the Indians. The British showed disrespect to the Emperor which offended the Indians in General and the Muslims in special. India possesses its own economic system mainly based on agriculture and small industry. The foreign rulers were sending Indian raw-materials to Britain for feeding their new born industries and thus were exploiting Indian resources. The “Doctrine of Lapse” or “Escheat” policy destroyed the Indian Industries. Indian Artisans, craftsman etc. became jobless and the burden of farmland increased. Poverty grabbed seriously the people. The Indian soldiers were paid low-salaries (starting from Rs. 7 to the end of Rs. 9). Indian soldiers were ill-treated in Army by the English causing rise of discrimination in their mind. The number of Indians in Army was far larger than the British sepoys (ratio 6:1). Most of the Indian soldiers were belong to Brahmin and Thakurs of East-India. A general discontent existed among all the Indian soldiers. Such dis-satisfaction were intensified by the Lord Canning introduction of “General Service Act” which required by the sepoys to march anywhere of British Empire. It is obvious that Indian sepoys had natural love and respect their motherland and faith of their own religion. The introduction of Enfield rifle with the cartridges greased with the fat of cow and pig, obnoxious to both the Hindus and Muslims set the spark that enkindled the embers of discontent of the Indian sepoy stored in them for a long time.

Language: English

13.
The  problem  of   Identity in the Identity Theory of  Mind
Shanjendu Nath
Associate Professor, Dept. of Philosophy, Rabindra Sadan Girls' College, Karimganj, Assam
Abstract

The identity theory of mind is advocated and developed by different philosophers beginning with Place, Feigl and Smart. The main thesis of this theory is – states and processes of the mind are identical to states and processes of the brain. Although this theory is better than dualism and Behaviourism, still it has its own problems. This theory leaves many things unexplained with regard to the relation between mind and body, which have been questioned by different thinkers in different periods. Hence, in this article I am going to find out only the problem of identity in the ‘Identity theory of mind’.

Language: English

 
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