Vol-II, Issue--IV, April 2014 - Pratidhwani the Echo

ISSN: 2278-5264 (Online)
ISSN: 2321-9319 (Print)
A Peer-Reviewed Indexed Journal of Humanties & Social Science
Impact Factor: 6.28 (Index Copernicus International) 3.1 (InfoBase Index)
Current Issue

Next Issue

31 July 2024
Go to content

Vol-II, Issue--IV, April 2014

Najib Mahfouz’s The Trilogy: The Portrayal of Social Aspects

Mahbubur Rahman
Research Scholar, Dept. of Arabic, Assam University, Silchar, India

Najib Mahfouz is an outstanding figure in the realm of Arabic literature having many novels, short stories and literary essays in his credit. His works are often charged with deep social criticism combined with subtle humour and clear conscience. ‘The Trilogy’, often regarded as the masterpiece in novelistic form, is based on domestic and national transitions. In the novel, Mahfouz penetrates into the spheres of individual, family and the nation as a whole and exposes the hypocrisy of people, most of them are Muslims whose life styles are contrary to the faith they profess. He highlights people’s engagement in corrupt practices to show the societal decadence and to create awareness against the same. The present paper is an attempt to highlight Mahfouz’s portrayal of social aspects in the novel ‘The Trilogy’ so as to give an insight about the author’s engagement with the society at large.
Key words: Najib Mahfouz, The Trilogy, Social Theme, Political Theme, Religious Theme.

Language: English

মধ্যযুগের নির্বাচিত কাব্যে ভাষা বৈচিত্র্য
ড. বর্ণালী ভৌমিক (ঘোষ)
Modhyojuger Nirbachito Kabye Bhasha Boichitro

Dr. Barnali Bhowmik (Ghosh)
Asst. Prof. & HOD, Dasharath Deb Memorial College (Govt), Lalchara, Khoyai, Tripura, India

This citation tries to analyze the ascent and speech expressions in the Bengali language during the era of the Medieval age,  based on study of a few literary work, such as ‘Sri Krishna Kirtan’, ‘Baishnava Padaboli’, ‘Anudito Ramayana’, ‘Mahabharat’, ‘Sri Krishna Bijoy’, ‘Jiboni Sahityo’, ‘Mongol Kabya’, ‘Arakan Rajsavar Kabya’ etc covering upon the period from 1350 to 1760. The Medieval linguistic aspects containing the origin and expression of important loan words, translation loan words, hybrid words and words of many Bengali dialects have been depicted and interpreted in this paper. Through discussion of the various linguistic aspects, the paper tries to highlight that medieval age holds a unique place as concerns development of Bengali Language.
Key Words: Medieval age, Bengali language, Linguistic aspects.

Language: Bengali

বৌদ্ধ দর্শনে প্রত্যক্ষ প্রমাণতত্ত্ব : একটি সমীক্ষা
ড. ছন্দা চ্যাটার্যী
Bouddho Darshane Pratyokkho Promantotto: Ekti Somikkhya
Dr. Chanda Chaterji
Asst. Prof., Dept. of Philosophy, Balurghat College, South Dinajpur, West Bengal, India


In Buddhist Epistemology valid knowledge is usually termed as the knowledge that is in harmony with its object. As argued by the Buddhist Philosophers, there are two kinds of valid knowledge—perception and inference. The knowledge derived from perception is direct and immediate knowledge of the object. Dharmakirti viewed perception as a non-erroneous presentation devoid of all determinations or conceptual construction. It is the immediate apprehension of an object in its uniqueness, unassociated with names and other determinations. Santarakshit agrees with Dharmakirti in this regard. Dignaga, however, held an altogether different view about perception. Nevertheless, these three Buddhists philosophers agree that only indeterminate perception is valid perception, since it apprehends the uniqueness of an object devoid of all qualifications. In the light of the arguments put forward by these Buddhist Philosophers, the present paper aims at finding out the influence of valid knowledge in Buddhist Epistemology.
Key Word: Perception, Valid Knowledge, Buddhist Epistemology.

Language: Bengali

রমাপদ চৌধুরীর ‘বনপলাশীর পদাবলী’ : সংস্কৃতির দ্বন্দ্ব ও জন্মভূমে নিঃসঙ্গ গিরিজাপ্রসাদের ট্র্যাজেডি
পরিমল চন্দ্র দাস
Ramapada Choudhuryr 'Bonpolashir Podaboli' : Songskritir dwondwo o Janmabhume Nisongo Girijaprosader Trajedy
Parimal Ch. Das
Asst., Prof., Dept. of Bengali, Kalipad Ghosh Torai College, Bagdogra, Darjiling, West Bengal, India

Ramapada Chowdhuri is a great novelist of Bengal in the post-Independence era; and many of his works deserve being classified as ‘modern classics’. From his first novel ‘Pratham Prahar’ (1954) to his ‘Pashchadpat’ (2005) he made fifty successful experiments and also wrote many short stories. Ramapada’s novels usually cover different dimensions of contemporary urban middle class life. In ‘Bonpalashir Padabali’ (1962), which owned him ‘The Rabindranath Tagore Memorial International Prize’, Ramapada Chowdhuri has shown a sharp contrast between the life of rural and urban middle classes of Bengal. The novel deals with the plight of Girijaprasad on his return to the birthplace after serving many years in an urban area. Though a native, he could not adjust with the changing life of the village in the post-independent era. In fact, it is defeat and not success which is the crux of Ramapada’s narration. In this paper a discussion is maid on the tragedy of Girijaprasad, emanating from the corruptions of erstwhile idyllic rural life in times of rapid urbanization, mechanization and materialization.
Key Words: Modern-classics, human values, development planning, tragic retired life.

Language: Bengali

বাঙালির ভ্রমণ : একটি সমাজতাত্ত্বিক ভাষ্য
শুভ্রজিৎ চ্যাটার্জ্জী
Bangalir Bhromon: Ekti Somajtatwik Bhashyo
Shubhrajit Chatterji

Ph.D. Scholar,  Department of Sociology, The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India

The people of West Bengal are known as tour loving people. From the ancient time they travelled many places around the world as pilgrim, merchant, historian and so on. During that period, this was limited among few people. But in Modern time the nature, motive, test and desire of tourists from West Bengal have changed and mass tourism has developed in this scenario. Now tourism is the fastest growing industry in the world. What was the nature of tourism of this people in the early stage, what kind of changes taken place in modern time, is there any class or gender inequality found among them and some sociological causal explanation of the changing nature of the tourism of the people of Bengal have been discussed in this article.
Key Words: Tourist, The tourist Gaze, Tourist motivation.
Language: Bengali

সুচিত্রা ভট্টাচার্যের গল্পে দাম্পত্য অশান্তি ও বিবাহ বিচ্ছেদের প্রেক্ষিতে নারীজীবন
রূপশ্রী দেবনাথ
Suchitra Bhattacharjer Golpe Dampotyo Oshanti o Bibaho Biccheder Prekkhite Nari Jibon
Rupashree Debnath
Research Scolar, Dept. of Bengali, Tripura University, Tripura, India

Suchitra Bhattacharjee is one of the prominent Bengali Writer of recent time. Her writing focuses on contemporary social issues. She wrote many short stories, which are illuminated from different aspects of women’s lives. Exploitations and sufferings of women regardless of their social or economic identities find a distinct voice in her writing. While she is famous for her writing on women’s issues, she does not consider herself a feminist. She has illustrated various problems of women’s lives through her writing. Marital turmoil is a important social issue of present time in our society. In her short stories, we can see that she focused on this. Sometimes traditional practices and customs of our society tied up woman’s life in the dark. But in her short story, woman did not accept any kind of torture. The present paper tries to show woman’s struggles in different aspects regarding their life and works in the context of the short story of Suchitra Bhattacharjee.

Language: Bengali


বিজয় সরকারের  বিচ্ছেদী গান : কান্নার স্থাপত্য
হীরামন পোদ্দার
Bijoy Sarkarer Bicchedi Gan: Kannar Sthapothyo
Hiraman Poddar
Asst. Teacher, Ganadipayan Lalbahadur Smriti Bidyapith, Howra, West Bengal, India

Sadness and Separation have always formed important aspects of human life through which man has expressed his inner feelings, be it spiritual or natural. The predominance of sadness and separation can well be perceived in literary works like Meghdut’, ‘Geet Gobindam’, ‘Charjhapad’, ‘Sreekrishnakirtan’ Baisnab Kabya, Kabita, Mangal, Shakta, which are highly popular in Bengal. The incorporation of sadness and separation mark a significant element as regards wide acceptance of the compositions of ‘Bauls’ in Bengal. In the songs of Bijoy Sarkar also we find prevalence sadness and separation which have explicably contributed to their fascination and beauty. In fact, frustration of human heart, hopelessness, death, painful memory etc. have found substantial place in the compositions of Bijoy Sarkar; which added to his melodious voice have made his songs highly enthralling. The present paper tries to highlight the implication of sadness and separation in Bijay Sarkar’s songs.

Language: Bengali

Employment and Educational Status: Challenges of Women Empowerment in India
Pankaj Kumar Baro
Assistant Professor,  Dept. of Economics, Women’s College, Silchar, India
Rahul Sarania
Assistant Professor,  Dept. of Economics, R. M. College, Silchar, India

Women empowerment is the vital instrument to expand women’s ability to have resources and to make strategic life choices. But, Indian societies have received notoriety for being unsafe for women. In fact, the level of atrocities against women is an indicator of the coercion of our society and underscores that we are a suppressed society. Clearly, safety is an obsolete word in today’s India. In India, women are devalued traditionally and the men are normative reified. The Global Gender Gap Report by the World Economic Forum in 2009 ranked India 114th out of 134 countries for inequality between men and women in the economy, politics, health, and education. On equal economic opportunities and women’s participation in the labour force, India ranked 127th and 122nd respectively. Women’s employment both in rural and urban areas is very low compared with men, particularly in urban areas. In the front of education, still the female literacy rate (only half of the female population are literates) is wadding behind male literacy rate (three fourth of the male population are literates). Not only this, the rate of school drop outs is also found to be comparatively higher in case of women (NFHS-3). The sex ratio of children attending school is 889 girls per 1,000 boys. There are several constraints that check the process of women empowerment in India. Social norms and family structures in developing countries like India, manifests and perpetuate the subordinate status of women. The need of the hour is to identify those loopholes or limitations which are obstructing the realization of empowerment of women and this initiative must be started from the women folk itself as well as more importantly policy initiative taken by the state and society. This paper tries to identify the extent and behavior of attainments in the front of employment and education of women in India and tries to focus on certain challenges for achieving the desired goal of women empowerment.  

Keywords: Empowerment, Vital, Strategic, Suppressed, Inequality, Wadding behind, Perpetuate, Loopholes, Attainments etc.
Language: English

The Impact of Human Capital Development on Economic Growth in Ethiopia: Evidence from ARDL Approach to Co-Integration  
Kidanemariam Gidey Gebrehiwot
Teacher, Dept. of Development Economics, Institute of Public Management and Development Studies, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The main objective of the study  was  is to investigate the long run and short run impact of human capital on economic growth in Ethiopia (using real GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic growth) over the period 75-2011. The ARDL Approach to Co-integration and Error Correction Model are applied in order to investigate the long-run and short run impact of Human capital on Economic growth. The finding of the Bounds test shows that there is a stable long run relationship between real GDP per capita, education human capital, health human capital, labor force, gross capital formation, government expenditure and official development assistance. The estimated long run model revels that human capital in the form of health (proxied by the ratio of public expenditure on health to real GDP) is the main contributor to real GDP per capita rise followed by education human capital (proxied by secondary school enrolment). Such findings are consistent with the endogenous growth theories which argue that an improvement in human capital (skilled and healthy workers) improves productivity. In the short run, the coefficient of error correction term is -0.7366 suggesting about 73.66 percent annual adjustment towards long run equilibrium. This is another proof for the existence of a stable long run relationship among the variables. The estimated coefficients of the short-run model indicate that education is the main contributor to real GDP per capita change followed by gross capital formation (one period lagged value) and government expenditure (one period lagged value). But, unlike its long run significant impact, health has no significant short run impact on the economy. Even its one period lag has a significant negative impact on the economy. The above results have an important policy implication. The findings of this paper imply that economic performance can be improved significantly when the ratio of public expenditure on health services to GDP increases and when secondary school enrolment improves. Such improvements have a large impact on human productivity which leads to improved national output per capita. Hence policy makers and / or the government should strive to create institutional capacity that increase school enrolment and improved basic health service by strengthening the infrastructure of educational and health institutions that produce quality manpower. In addition to its effort, the government should continue its leadership role in creating  enabling environment that encourage better investment in human capital (education and health) by the private sector.

Key words:  Ethiopia, Economic Growth, Human capital, Education, Health, ARDL method of Co-integration, ECM model.
Language: English

Drawbacks in Primary School Curriculum Design and the need to Change: A study from BTAD
Neeta Baglari
Asst. Prof., Department of Education, Janata College, Serfanguri, Assam, India

The progress of the nation in the world of today is more than ever dependent upon the quantity and quality of education received by people. Primary education is a fundamental need of life. We cannot under any circumstances ignore elementary education of the children or education of the masses up to the primary level. Elementary education is the foundation of the entire super structure of a nation which we intend to build. In the educational ladder primary education plays a pivotal role for mass literacy and provides a solid foundation for higher education. In simple analysis, the quality of primary education determines the quality of life of nations, strengthens democratic institutions, ensures economic development and modernizes social institutions. Therefore it becomes an obligatory duty and bounded responsibility of the government of welfare states to make education available to every child.
Curriculum is an integral part of the school education system. It facilitates the teacher to transfer his thoughts to the students. Curriculum, in fact, is knowledge arranged systematically for progressive acquisition. It is a sequence of learning experiences, class study, health and recreational services and guidance for educating pupils and helping them to develop their interests and abilities towards effective participation in the community life.  Primary school being the first formal stage of education naturally requires a well-organized curriculum. This is, in fact, the most important stage for formal education. However, a greater need could be easily felt as regards curriculum of the primary level with better selection of content in each area than is evident now. The present paper highlights the importance of curriculum at the primary level and emphasizes on the need of developing learning skills, particularly on reading and writing, through inductive processes of learning.  
Keywords: Curriculum, Elementary Education, Foundation, Primary Education, Universalization.

Language: English

Students’ Perception on Teamwork: A Study of Course Objectives Accomplishment and Satisfaction in Higher Education
Dr. Papori Baruah
Associate Professor, Tezpur University, Assam, India
Rashmi R. Baruah
Assistant Professor, University of Science & Technology, Meghalaya, India

The academic press and management increasingly emphasize the importance of teams for organisational success in the modern economy. The use of teams has really expanded dramatically to face the competitive challenges. According to many research studies, one of the most common skills required by new work practices and processes is the ability to work in a team. As we know- education is also a process, it has an important role in recognising the needs & importance of teamwork where teachers can encourage their students to combine different skills they have to make the most of their united efforts towards a common goal.  However, it was also found that students can meet their course objectives and satisfactions only if they can work in teams and access support from their teachers. If there is a good teamwork, it results a win-win scenario where teachers are able to teach more and students are able to learn more to meet their course objectives more efficiently. Working together helps teachers learn how to be more effectively use classroom time to impart knowledge and help the students to be more committed and dedicated to gain knowledge. From team teaching to teacher-student relationship, teamwork must be present in the classrooms of all levels. So, it is very important for the administration staff of educational institutions to understand the existence of teamwork in their institutions that could influence the accomplishment of course objectives and their satisfactions.
This paper is concerned with examining the students’ perceptions regarding the linkage between teamwork with their course accomplishment and satisfaction level that exist in the academic institutions of North-East Region of India. The result suggests that - allowing students to work in teams lead to faster achieving of course objectives and student satisfaction, provided the teachers really pay attention on teams and setting up the assignments for the students working on the team carefully.  
Keywords: Course objectives accomplishment, Educational Institutions, Student satisfaction, Team, Teamwork.

Language: English

Phenomenology and Reader ‘Redefined’
Kalyan Das
Asst. Professor, Department of English, P B College, Gauripur, Dhubri, Assam, India

The strange nature of unveiling the meaning of a text has always been considered to be an activity fully under the authority of the text or the author. The third participant in this process of producing meaning has always been given a rather marginal role.  The emphasis recently given on the reader as very crucial entity to the process of interpretation, not something which is described by John Lock as a blank sheet, is mainly influenced by the new approaches of looking at the reading process. Philosophers like Edmund Husserl and Roman Ingarden, and also Phenomenologists like Schleiermacher and Don Ihde brought into being a new discourse regarding interpretation and consequently paved way for the elevation of the reader to the position of the most important agent shaping and directing the process of decoding the meaning of a text. This process was given further impetus by the literary theories proposed by Roman Ingarden, Hans Robert Jauss, Wolfgang Iser, Stanley Fish which has brought the reader to the center stage.  As a result of the forces generated by these philosophical and theoretical assumptions the role of the text has been redefined from  an independent object into something that can only exist when it is read and when it interacts with the mind of the reader. This study describes how the phenomenological notions combined with literary ideologies helped in establishing the reader as the most powerful agent in the realization of the meaning of texts.
Keywords: phenomenology, intentional objects, historical situatedness, reception theory.

Language: English

Advent of the Nepali People to the Present Day B.T.C.  Assam – A Glimpse
Shyam Subedy
       Asstt. Prof., Dept. English, Commerce College, Kokrajhar, India

India is culturally diversified country. Nepali or Gorkha people are one of the ancient inhabitants of this part. They have been living in Assam and North East region since long. Though the ancestors of almost all ethnic groups and communities once had to migrate from one place to another with the tide of circumstances, the advent of the Nepali people to this region has some historic evidences. It is undoubtedly admitted that the Nepali people living in this region bear a great deal of resemblance to that of Nepal. But the acculturation and its impact has led them to adopt some cultural and social customs of Assam as well. Since the regime of Lord William Bentinck as the Governor General of India, several agreements, pacts, treaties land cession and accession were common factors that led the present day Nepali people to move towards this region.
Language: English

The Resurgence of Religion in the Age of Globalization
         Subhrajit Chatterjee
Ph.D. Scholar,  Department of Sociology, The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India

The history of mankind shows that religion is one of the deepest and most intimate urges of mankind which, in one way or another, is found everywhere. There was a widespread assumption that the trends toward industrialization, urbanization, secularization and globalization which world had pioneered in the twenty-first century had led to the complete displacement of religion from any central role in public life. Experts once predicted that as the world grew more modern, religion would decline. Precisely the opposite has proven true. The so-called "information age" is gradually spreading its influence to the realm of religion. The twenty-first century is witnessing a resurgence and globalization of religion. Around the world, religion has become an increasingly more vital and pervasive force in both personal and public life. So this article will focus on the globalization of religion. It connects today's religions to their classical beliefs and practices but also shows how they have been transformed by globalization and by their contact with one another. To highlight, in what way globalization has contributed to the revival and resurgence of religion, is the major theme of this article.
Keywords: Religion, Globalization, Secularization, Return of religion, Fundamentalism, Jihad, New religions, Digitalized religion, Americanization of the religious world

Language: English

Human Resource Development and the context of India
Miss Jyotsnali Chetia
Research Scholar, Dept of Economics,Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, India


Human resource is the most important and vital factor of economic development of a country. Development economics in recent years have become more people centric than before. It has rediscovered that human beings are both the means and the end of economic development process, and without Human Development that process becomes hollow rhetoric. The Human Development Report, 2013 notes that over the last decade, countries world over  accelerated their achievements in the education, health and income dimensions as measured in the HDI- to the extent that no country for which data was available had a lower HDI value in 2012 than in 2000. Over the past two decades, India has witnessed huge improvement in its HDI score from 0`410 in 1990 to 0`554 in 2012.But India is still counted among the countries having some of the lowest indicators of human development. This paper tries to analyze the Human Resource Development in India on the basis of some selected economic and social indicators and at the same time strives to find out the causes of poor performance of India in the sphere of HRD. The paper concludes with a handful policy suggestions for improvement of HRD in India.
Key words: Human Resource Development

Language: English

Gandhi and World Peace
Ajay kumar
Ph.D Scholar, Department of Strategic and Regional Studies, University of Jammu. J&K, India

This paper aims to analyse Gandhian way to world peace and insist that Gandhian methodology to world peace has never been an utopian dream. For one thing, Gandhi has not committed the error of advocating or pursuing the goal of peace through war and force. Neither Gandhi looked for easy or piecemeal methods. Instead, he goes to the root of the problems covering all possible dimensions be it personal, social, economic, political and academic. Further, he warns us against the disastrous or self-destructive thrust of ‘modern civilization’ in which weapons of mass destruction, environmental pollution, resource-depletion, ecological degradation and demographic pressure appears to be coming rather gravely as threat to the future of humankind. It's time to stop this drift to irreversible tragedy before it's too late. This Paper claims that, to resolve the emerging contemporary issues in an exceedingly lasting manner, in depth learning and realization of the ideals of Gandhi is urgently needed.
Key words: Karma, Nonviolence, Nuclearlisation, Swadeshi, Sarvodaya

Language: English

2021, Dept. of Bengali, Karimganj College, All Rights Reserved
Design & Developed By: Dr. Bishwajit Bhattacharjee
Creative Commons License
Back to content