Vol-II, Issue-I, July 2013 - Pratidhwani the Echo

ISSN: 2278-5264 (Online)
ISSN: 2321-9319 (Print)
A Peer-Reviewed Indexed Journal of Humanties & Social Science
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Vol-II, Issue-I, July 2013

Article (Non-Research)


Bangla Sahityer Anginay Anurupa Devi
Raju Layek
Research Scholar, Department of Bengali, Banaras Hindu University

Anurupa Devi (9th September 1882 – 19th April 1958) is one of the famous names in Bengali literature. She was a Bengali novelist, short story writer, poet and also a social worker. She was one of the women writers in Bengali to gain considerable prominence. She was the daughters of Mukunda Mukhopadhyay. Bhudeb Mukhopadhyay was her grandfather.
Up to the middle of nineteenth century the women of the Indian Society were deprived from education and they were restricted within house hold matters, they have no right to have basic education. It was for them, a social crime to become educated or achieved basic education. They had no equal right at the contemporary society as men had. Where women are going through these adverse conditions, the name Anurupa Devi appeared in the Bengali Literature as a representative of the women of that society.
Language: Bengali

The Role of State as an Active and Informal Agency of Education
Himashree Patowary

Research Scholar, Dept: political science, Assam University, Sichar, Assam, India

In the words of Aristotle, "The state is a union of families and villagers having for an end, a perfect and self-sufficing life by which we mean a happy and honourable life. A state exists for the sake of good life and not for the sake of life only".
This definition has given a clear vision on the relationship between man and the state. The state, in modern times is regarded as an important agency or in other words a human organization for maintaining disciplined and a well-arranged environment for education.
In contemporary world, the functions to be performed by a state are going wide day by day. So, one of the functions of a state is to give proper education and to create a proper environment for imparting knowledge among people. In a democratic country the role of state in spreading education is very much important. These states provide educational aims and objectives, open schools and colleges; arrange the syllabus and curriculum, plan, control and direct educational activities for their citizens. Performing these functions the modern states can create such an environment in every society where every citizen can be made educated enough to understand the complexities of modern world.
Besides these, the modern world can make proper arrangements for research and experiments in various fields of education. For this a state should establish such institutions and organisations to inspire the eligible individuals.
In a big country like India, the state makes educational policies based on needs, ideals and aspirations of the people. For this there are various administrative unites are established. Each such unites maintain an educational department of it’s own for providing liberal and vocational education up to highest standard. States also maintain one or more universities for higher education.
Thus, it can be said that a state exerts it’s direct and indirect influences on all aspects of education.
Language: English

Research Article

Islamic Literature: A Study of the Concept
Md. Badre Alam
Deorail Title Madrassa, Badarpur

This is a study about emergence and development of the notion of ‘al-Adab al-Islami’ or Islamic Literature. The focus is on the conceptual thinking underlying Islamic Literature as a discourse. The term "Islamic Literature" consists of two fundamental components, "Islamic" and "Literature". In order to understand the concept of Islamic Literature, an appropriate understanding of the nature within Islam is inevitable. This study looks at the fundamental question whether Islamic Literature should give priority to its religious or its literary proper ties. This study observes the development of the concept of an Islamic Literature throughout the history. Islamic Literature draws its inspiration from the Quran and the Hadith, the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad.
Language: Arabic

Al-Makhtoobah: A Master Piece of Syed Ehtisham Ahmad Nadvi
Abu Nazat Sayful Haque

Research Scholar,Department of Arabic, Assam University, Silchar

Al-Makhtoobah (The fiancé), a social-realistic drama that can be claimed as the first drama to make a mark in Indian Arabic literature published in 2009 by Syed Ehtisham Ahmad Nadvi, depicts generally a vivid picture of Indian Muslim society and some unwelcomed marital issues especially, in the form of dialogue.
Al-Makhtoobah, is a tragedy in manners turning round the pertinacious attempts of a young girl to pass her life with her drunkard irresponsible husband. Before marriage, her rich parents were in a promise to marry her with a meritorious madrassa student, while a fraudulent became successful to make their promise fail showing fallaciously superiority of a boy who becomes her husband later.  Henceforth, the fraudulent occupies wealth of the girl and her father and finally this incident makes her father mysterious, mad and he dies.
The writer Syed Ehtisham Ahmad Nadvi is a famous Indian Arabic literary critic, litterateur; an alumnus of Aligarh Muslim University, Jamia Millia Islamia and the great Islamic learning center namely Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow. He is also one of the shining figures in the history of Indian Arabic literature who wrote a good number of books and articles in Arabic as well as Urdu and retired as a professor of Arabic in the University of Calicut, Kerala in the year 2000 A.D.
The present paper aims to study the themes of Al-Makhtoobah and styles that have followed the writer in making of the drama an artistic one. Further, it attempts to present writer’s academic, administrative and artistic excellence.
Language: Arabic


Dwandwik Bastubadi Sahitya Path Bishleshan: Prekkhit Manasamangal Kabya
Arupa Chakraborty
Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Tripura University, Tripura, India

Through the application of the Dialectical materialism of Karl Marx’s, the essence of Dialectical materialism is created in literature. From this doctrine, it can be understood that the writers have sympathetic attitude towards the distressed and marginalized people of the society. Marxism is the essence of the struggle to free people against exploitation and torture.  Feudalism is divided into two classes-one is exploited class, the other exploiting class or the owner of the extender. The key word of Marx’s dialectical materialism is to build a society free from exploitation, through comprehensive range of absorption and class struggle.
If we discuss the Manasamangala epic in the context of dialectical materialism, it is easily seen that the effort of Manasa to be worshipped by the feudal lord Cad was actually a fight for establishing marginalised people in the society. If we discuss it from another angle, it is noticed that Manasa being a daughter of feudal lord Mahadev exploited the human being Cad and in this way it expresses the cheap aggressive attitude of rulers. In the conflict between Manasa of Cad, Behula became victimized who has been utilized by Manasa for her own interest and these sufferings of Behula compelled her to take step against Manasa. In this epic Neta, the follower of Manasa showed the tactical intelligence of the political leaders.
Language: Bengali


Uponibeshottor Chetonar Aloke prantikayito Janasamaj : Nirbachito Koyekti Uponyase er Pratifalan
Mousumi Nath
Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Assam University, Silchar, India


Post colonialism is often understood to be a period of time after colonialism and post-colonial literature is usually characterized by its opposition to the colonial discourse. However, any literature that expresses an opposition to colonialism, even if it is written during a colonial period, may be defined as postcolonial literature, primarily due to its oppositional nature. From this point of view, novels like ‘Kankabati’, ‘Nildarpan’, ‘Bolmik’, ‘Tabubihanga’, ‘Aranyer Adhikar’, ‘Droupadi’, ‘Akasher Niche Manus’, and  Mohakaler Rather Ghora’ have been discussed in this paper. The paper also highlights that the so-called renaissance and modernity in Bengali Literature took place under the imposed structure of an English modernity. Perceived in this light, a new dimension of Bengali novels could be found, where the plights of marginalized sections are being highlighted. The paper is analytical in nature construed with the help of Primary and Secondary data.
Language: Bengali


Shoiligoto Anudhaban: Prasanga Shrirajmala Kabya
Rupashree Debnath
Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Tripura University, Tripura, India

The main aim of this article is to explore the stylistic aspects of the famous chronicle of Tripura dynasty entitled Rajmala which contains  legends of the reign of kings of the small hilly state Tripura, written in the form of verse in 15th century. This famous historical chronicle always raises curiosity among the scholars as it is a rich source of  historical information and document, not only about the kings and queens but also about the society, cultures, politics, and many more of the medieval era of Tripura. However, my concern in this article is to show how the stylistic aspects used in different verses of Rajmala are influenced by the stylistic features of medieval age. For example in that age the use of assonance and consonance in different texts was very prominent and Rajmala is no exception in this case. The main paper will contain  examples of stylistic features used in Rajmala.  
Language: Bengali

African Culture, Folklore and Myth in Toni Morrison’s Song of Solomon: Discovering Self Identity
Dr. Reena Sanasam, Assistant Professor
Soyam Chaningkhombee, Research scholar

NIT Silchar, Assam, India

The main focus of this paper is to explore the role of African myths, folklore and popular wisdom in discovering self-identity, which are arguably deployed in the novels of the Nobel Prize winning African-American writer and thinker, Toni Morrison, who is quite frequently labelled as a mythical symbolist. In Song of Solomon, Morrison stirs together folk and fairy tale, magic and root medicine, history and imagination, flight and naming for a distinctive fictional concoction. In this novel, she shows impact of slavery on the identity of African Americans and suggests how a strong and complete identity can be constructed. Thus Morrison demonstrates that both an understanding of one’s heritage and ancestral past is necessary and helps to unite with own community. So the paper examines the transformation of the character, Milkman, from an unconcerned man into culturally aware African American and how the sources of Myths, folklore and cultures lay the stepping stone for the development of a complete and coherent identity.
Language: English

Black Woman as Mother in two selected novels of Alice Walker- The Third Life of Grange Copeland and Meridian
Jasmine Ahmed Choudhury
PhD Scholar, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India

The Black woman has always been portrayed in clichéd images in the white media, stereotyping them in a racist and sexist manner. In Black Women Image Makers, Mary Helen Washington dwells upon such unfair portrayals as the tragic mulatto, the hot blooded exotic whore and the strong Black Mammy.  And this is probably why the black mother frequently appears in literature as a figure of towering strength.
In Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), an old grandmother, a former slave, accurately describes her position in this society: "De nigger woman is de mule uh de world so fur as Ah can see". The black mother is not a woman with power, not a liberated woman, but a mule, picking up the burdens that everyone else has thrown down and refused to carry. To outsiders, the Negro mother appears to be the one-dimensional Rock of Gibraltar – strong of back, long of arm, incapable of destruction.
The proposed paper would study the black mothers as portrayed in Alice Walker’s novels, The Third Life of Grange Copeland and Meridian. To Walker, the Black mother is an individual – profound, tragic, mysterious, sacred, and unfathomable – strong in many, but not in all ways. She claims that the assertion of the black mother as a superwoman is a myth, and she feels that the black mother isn’t always strong. A black man does have a history of ignoring his responsibilities, but the black mother has had no choice in any matter; she has had to pick up the burdens that no one else would carry. In her fiction, Walker introduces the real-feeling, caring, uncaring, disappointed, indifferent black mother to the world.
Language: English

A study on Irish nationalism and its impact upon the growth of W.B.Yeats’ poetry
Manas Sinha
Asst. Professor, Dept. of English, Lala Rural College, Lala

Nationalism, as a phenomenon, is largely recognized as a European development in its desire to assert its superiority vis-à-vis other non-European societies and cultures. However, even within European societies, there are instances of subordination of one culture by another. One such instance is the relationship of Irish culture with the English to which the former had a subservient relationship similar to the colonization of one society by another. Nationalism, in Irish political scenario, procures its twin facets: political and cultural. In a bid to gain political independence Irish intelligentsia collectively rose to the occasion. Irish native literature grounded on Gaelic culture and studies, so long lost in British wilderness, comes to see the day light again. In the Irish context, W.B. Yeats, a great modern English poet, is significant in any study that seeks to examine the circuits of cultural relationships within societies having an unequal relationship as between England and Ireland.  It was under the influence of John O’Leary, Lady Gregory, Douglas Hyde, Maud Gonne and some others that Yeats developed an interest in Irish nationalism and went through Irish patriotic literature. This opened up for him an Ireland rich in myths and legends. The poems of Yeats tended to be somewhat moulded by myths and legends. Poetry of Yeats, especially his earlier poetry, appeared to be interested in contemporary political movements. In the process, a sense of nationalism pervaded his poems. Yeats’ earlier poetry was the judicious fusion of both political and cultural interests. The growth of his poetry thus embarks upon the spirit of Irish nationalism.
Language: English

Nidhanpur Copper Plate Inscription
A Study of the earliest Epigraphic Evidence of Syhlet-Cachar
Kalpana Sen  

Ph. D Scholar, Dept. of History   Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India

The epigraphic data on land in ancient Srihatta is extremely meager. The earliest known Copper Plate discovered in the valley is that of Maharaja Bhaskara Varman. From this inscription we come to know that a part of the valley was known as Chandrapuri Vishaya in late 5th or early 6th century C.E and it has been under the rule of the successive Bhauma-Naraka rulers from BhutiVarman to Bhaskar Varman. The present paper is a study of the Nidhanpur copperplate Inscription which is the first indisputable material evidence of the socio-political Aryanisation of the Surma Barak Valley and it attempts to show what was the socio-political and religious scenario of the Surma-Barak Valley during 7th century C.E. The present paper has been written on the basis of content analysis of Secondary Sources.
Language: English

Decentralization under the 6th Schedule of the Indian Constitution: A Study in the Context of Karbi Anglong District
Lutfur Rahman Choudhury
Research Scholar, Dept. of Political Science, Assam University, Diphu Campus, Diphu Karbi Anglong , Assam, India

The literal meaning of decentralization is transferring of decision making powers and functions to the local bodies with a view to inject greater degree of efficiency in administration. The Panchayats as the means of rapid socio-economic development of rural areas has been in operation in different parts of India including in the plain districts of Assam. However, in the hill states of the North East and in the hill districts of the present Assam, the implementation of the concept of  Panchayati Raj can hardly  be imagined  as  almost all the hill tribes of the region live a nomadic life  changing their habitat after frequent intervals. To suit the needs and aspirations of the hill tribes of the North East India, the 6th Schedule has been inserted in the Indian Constitution which provides a decentralized administration to the hill tribes including the Karbis of the present Karbi Anglong district of Assam. The provisions of decentralization provided under the  6th Schedule of the constitution have been able to fulfill the hopes and aspirations of the people of Karbi Anglong district of Assam to a certain extent  but still a lot more needed to be done  in this regard. Based on primary and secondary data, the paper studies the provisions of decentralization for the Karbi Anglong district under the 6th Schedule of the Indian constitution and assesses performance of the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council (KAAC) in terms of development.
Language: English


Satra, Sanskritisation and Assamese Society: Understanding Social Assimilation
Anupal Saikia
Ph.D Scholar, Diphu Campus, Assam University, Silchar

In Assam, vaishnavism has been constantly playing a significant role in the process of assimilating diverse elements-indigenous and non-indigenous into Assamese culture. With the initiatives of Satra Institution, which is the greatest contribution of Neo-Vaishnavism of Assam the process of assimilating the non-Hindus to the Hindu fold started with new spirit. Satras play a vital role in the life as well as in the formation of Assamese society.  In this paper an attempt is made to understand the role of Satra in legitimizing and popularizing the process of Sanskritisation in Assam, which was started long years back in the Brahmaputra Valley.
Key words- Vaishnavism, Sanskritisation, Assimilation
Language: English

Students: The Starting Point to Institutional Planning
Preeti Sodhi
Govt. Home Science College, Chandigarh
Shashi Kumar
Govt. Sr. Sec .School, Manimajra Town, Chandigarh

"All the flowers of all the tomorrows are in the seeds of today"-Indian proverb (flickr.com)
India is flattering as a global hub for educational actions and a catalyst for all kinds of worldwide man-power condition. There is a mounting stipulation for, and also apprehension more of concern to, endowed with eminence education with standard curriculum and globally acceptable arrangement of education. It is based in the key of optimal utilization of the resources available in the school and the community and for this we need to have plan. Planning is having a unique importance in every walk of life. Wherever we are, whatever we do a certain amount of planning is required and educational capsule is one of them which is having different essence to it. Institutional planning is one of them which framed and executed on the basis of felt needs along with available resources. It starts with grass root level which consists of broad policy which makes it a two way process. As we are in 21st century, the present paper focuses on the qualities of the students and the opulent relationship of the student and the institution. Since the author belongs to teaching fraternity, explores role of students which should be the initial position of the institutional planning along with the institutional strategies which are required to achieve academic success as well as goals of the institution.
Key Words: Student Qualities, Relationship, Student’s role, Institutional strategies
Language: English

Women in twelfth five year plan in India: An Analysis
Satarupa Pal
Assistant Professor in Political Science, Rampurhat College, Birbhum

The significance of the role women in development had been recognized by the government of India right from the first five year plan (1951-1956). However, women in these earlier plans were considered as subjects of ‘welfare’ and category of disadvantaged groups such as destitute, disabled, aged etc.  As a category women had been gained special importance since the sixth five year plan. It is noteworthy that seventh and eighth five year have emphasized on ‘development’ and ‘empowerment’ respectively. With the passage of time, 11th and 12th five year plan have focused on inclusive growth. In other words, ‘women’ as a category must be included in the development process. Despite the various discrimination faced by women, the 12th five year plan has emphasized on single women by providing ‘quota’ in jobs. Moreover, women’s inclusion in inclusive growth is only then possible when inclusive democracy turned to be reality not the myth. With the help of secondary materials, this paper attempts to show the position of women in 12 th five year plan in India..
Language: English

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