Vol-II, Issue-III, January 2014 - Pratidhwani the Echo

ISSN: 2278-5264 (Online)
ISSN: 2321-9319 (Print)
A Peer-Reviewed Indexed Journal of Humanties & Social Science
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Vol-II, Issue-III, January 2014

Article (Non-Research)

Shilpi Ebong Manush Chapliner 125tomo Janmaborsher Prekkhite
Prithwi Sengupta
Sodpur, West Bengal, India

The year 2014, will be the Charlie Spencer Chaplin or shortly known as world famous Chaplin’s 125 th Birth year. This article is like a tribute to a great person, who was also a musician, actor, comedian, director and music composer. The world still remembers this man not only for his acting skill, as the greatest comedian of all times, but also as a great human being. He shared his sorrow and pain, through  which he had gone through in his childhood by his acting.
In this article, from Chaplin’s childhood to his personal life, much information behind of his film-making, his struggle period, world-situation of that time period, all this important aspects are critically analyzed. In basis of that, we look upon, one more time, this great man’s ideological thinking, political view, think of how to use cinema as a medium etc. In respect of political ideology & various sources of information, we found that from past to present, presence of various conflict, in this regarding topic. In this article for maintain the honesty, tried to do not suppress any conflict; but try to collect as much as possible information-opinion with honesty for better quality of the article. And that’s why from Charlie Chaplin’s Family life to changed world scenario & other small details has been given so much importance.
Language: Bengali   

Research Article

A Glimpse on Islamic Teaching
 Dr. Md. Hussain Ahmed
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Arabic, S. R. College, Kalain, Cachar, Assam

Islam' literally means submission but when the term is used in a religious context it means submission to Allah alone. Accordingly, a Muslim is one who submits to the Divine injunctions and does not deviate from them.
"Al-Islam implies that you testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and you establish prayer, pay zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to Holy Ka'ba at Mecca once in a lifetime if you are solvent enough (to bear the expense of) journey".
The most important principle in Islam is worshiping one and only one God. Islam calls for human rights; no one is better than another with his colour, race, gender, or culture. All are equal and difference among people is based on piety and doing good deeds. Islam considers all human free and has free will. Islam calls protecting environment. Islam calls all people to recognize that our life in the planet is short and that we should prepare ourselves for the second eternal life where everyone will be judged by the Creator in what he did in his first life for himself, community, and environment.
In brief, the teachings of Islam are based on Quran (Holy book of God revelation to prophet Mohamed) and Prophet Mohamed (peace upon him) sayings and practices.

The teachings are based on two wings:
Worship: This is to follow the five pillars of Islam and believe in the 6 pillars of faith.
Good deeds: This to do what is beneficial to community and to mankind.
The fulfilment of these duties means the fulfilment of the remaining duties as well. That is why it is mentioned in a tradition that only these duties have been called "Islam".

Language: Arabic

A Scrap from the Life and Works of M’asumi
Md. Raysul Hoque
Research Scholar Dept. of Arabic, Assam University, Silchar

Abu Mahfuz Al-Karim M’asumi (1913-2009) spent his entire life in the service of Arabic language and literature. He got basic education at his birth place Bihar, after that he travelled to Dhaka, Kolkata and other places seeking knowledge and got modern as well as traditional Islamic knowledge. His great scholarship in Arabic and Islamic literature quite clearly reflects in his writings: books, articles, research papers etc. M’asumi’s voluminous book Buhuth Wa Tanbihat, is the collection of all his writings. The book has been published in Beirut in two volumes in 2001, under the supervision of Dr.Ajmal Ayyub Al-Islahi. The book under discussion deals with Arabic language, Literature, Islamic theology, researches, analysis and commentaries. Satyer Aloksandhani
The life and works of Ma’sumi have, of late, emerged as an important subject for research.  And, in fact a number of writers and researchers in India and abroad have published articles and research papers on the life and works of this great personality. But so far my knowledge is concerned; no one has done any research work for any degree in India. Hence, this proposed research will be first of its kind. During the next few years all possible attempts will be made to prepare a complete and comprehensive work on Ma’sumi’s life and works. An attempt to undertake a research is required to bring out the contribution of Ma’sumi to Arabic literature. I think it will benefit the researchers in general and the researchers in Arabic language and literature in particular. This research work will also encourage other researchers to do their researches on some other aspect of Abu Mahfuz’s prolific work Buhuth Wa Tanbihat.
Language: Arabic

Gunomoy Mannar 'Mute' : Satyer Aloksandhani
Dr. Priyakanta Nath
Associate Professor, Dept. of Bengali, Assam University, Silchar

Novel is a time-art. Gunamoy Manna writes novel, express truth with the help of time. Gunamoy Manna is an anti-establish writer. He enlightens those people, whom live for truth and life. 'Mute` is one of the most extra-ordinary novel in history of Bengali novel, because most popular religious and cultural festival 'Gaajan` and its philosophy is the main theme in this novel. The main character Sudhir overcomes all the problems through his faith on lord Shiva.
Language: Bengali

Tomari Nam Bolbo Nana Chole : Tannistha Path
Dr. Gautam Kumar Nag
Associate Professor (French) & Head, Dept. of Foreign Languages, University of Burdwan, Burdwan, West Bengal

The aim of the present paper is to explore the linguistic aspects of a well known song of Tagore: tomari nam balbo nana chhale. The song pivots on the theme of nām (name). Through an in depth study of the salient lexical, morpho-syntactic and semantic features of this song we have attempted to demonstrate how the theme had been developed. Our second objective is to discern the influence of tradition on this song. We have ended up the discussion with a brief comparative study of a few songs of Tagore which have been composed on the same theme.
Language: Bengali

Binsho Shatabdir Sahity O Samakal
Dr. Hena Sinha
Associate Professor, Dept. of Bengali, Jangipur College, Murshidabad, West Bengal

In Bengali literature 20 th century is an important period. In this period Bengali literature became more enriched. From imaginative and fictitious literature, it emerged to realistic literature. In my article I tried to present how a realistic picture of the contemporary period can be seen in this literature of the 20 th century.
Language: Bengali

Apan Potaka Hate Tule Nao Nari : Naribader Epith Opith
Dr. Tanushree Ghosh
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Bengali, Rabindra Sadan Girls' College, Karimganj, Assam


Women even today are not able to create their own world and space. The matter of equal rights of women and men in education and income still remains as a movement. Whatever humanistic things, the social activists say; efforts are on even today to prevent women from leading a life of their own choice. The protagonist of this effort is patriarchy.
The reason for ill-treatment of the birth of women is that women cannot save their parents from an imaginary hell called ‘put’. Therefore an unwilling matter to give birth to a girl wishes---
 "prabhuji mai tori binate karu / paye paru barbar. / agle janom moke bitiye / na dije, narak dije chahe".
The demand of teenage girls in prostitution has tremendously increased in this country in last ten years. Salman Rushdie has opined that Indian women are going to be an endangered species in the first half of this century. There are many stories against humanism towards women in the epics. Lord Rama deserted pregnant Sita due to public reproach. This proves the inferior status of women. An illustrious woman like Droupodi also was humiliated in front of her five husbands by Dushasana. Yet women also are always busy to prove their superiority as men are superior being.

Language: Bengali

Balmiki o Madhusudan : Ram o Raban
Ms. Anita Goswami (Jash)
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Bengali, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam

Balmiki’s Ramayana, the great Indian epic, is the hallmark of Indian culture and tradition. The Ramayana is the story of devotion and sublime feelings and ‘Meghanad Vadh’ by Madhusudhan Dutta is the modern version of this epic dimension. ‘Meghanad Vadh’ is a colossal effort at capturing the renaissance spirit prevalent in Bengal during the 19 th century. This article is a comparative study of the two protagonists of both the epics – Rama and Ravana.
The essence of Balmiki’s Ramayana is the titanic clash between gods and demons; but it is the conflict between man and man which is what lies at the core of ‘Meghanadh Vadh’. Here Rama is human with his share of glories and imperfections and Ravana, the grand fellow. Here in this epic fortitude and mortality, valour and affection are all intermingled into creating a whole new perception. This work is a probe in to the differences that lie in the hearts of the two protagonists of the two epics of two different times.

Language: Bengali

Padmini Upakhyan o Toder Rajasthan : Tulonamulak Path
Ms. Mausumi Das
Assistant Professor, Dept. of Sanskrit, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam


2 nd James Tod, the writer of the ‘Rajasthan’ influenced Rangalal Bandopadhya by the glorious story of Rajputs. Rangalal composed many of his writing from Rajasthan. He had added more flavour to his creations and discarded some incident from Tod. ‘Pandmini Upakhyan’ was the first historical modern kavya in the Modern age of Bengali Literature. I have compared ‘Pandmini Upakhyan’ with Tod’s Rajasthan. How and why Rangalal compossed ‘Pandmini Upakhyan’, I have tried to elaborate in this paper.  
Language: Bengali

Debesh Royer Chotogolper Anubishwa : Boichitrer Nana Dik
Ms. Mausumi Nath
Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Assam University, Silchar

The adventures novelist Debesh Roy, -- ignored the so-called conception of our literary world and developed his own fictional world with alternative space building. Except the four ‘Pratibedans’ and four ‘Britantas’ of the writer, if we deeply study the other novels and stories of him, we can feel the reality of our society. We can say that his novels and stories are indicating the various important sides of Bengali literature. From birth to death, from ordinary to extra ordinary, from lower to upper standard, from village to town -- in every stage of human life and society we can see there are lots of changes are going on.  All these changes may not be explained through any explanation to the civil society or it seems to be challenging to our civil society. But if we want to prove it from our experience of life, then we can say, riders may achieve the success of intellect (perception of life) from these lessons.
Language: Bengali

Badal Sarkarer 'Ebong Indrajit' o Mohan Rakesher 'Adhe Adhure' : Tulanamulak Bishleshan
Ms. Arupa Chakraborty
Research Sholar, Dept. of Bengali, Tripura University, Tripura


It is observed, after comparative discussion between the dramas ‘Abong Indrajit’ of Badal Sarkar and ‘Adhe Adhure’ of the Hindi dramatist Mohan Rakesh. In both the dramas, it was the intension to reflect mental feeling of the people. Every character represented as the social character of any kind. In the drama ‘Adhe Adhure’ it has been reflected a story how a family ruined caused by social, economic and psychological dilemma.
Absent of characteristic according to ‘Absurd Bad’, has been found omission of characteristics in both the dramas. They are being leaded by monotonousness and usual daily life style. Death is only the way to be saved from it. Dramatist Badal Sarkar in his drama ‘Abong Indrajit’ highlighted the different thought of Bengalese towards ideological aspects and social custom and the Hindi dramatist Mohan Rakesh on the same situation expressed the dilemma of the lower & middle class families after freedom. To keep their existence, the people had to lead down words at that very moment. Division & changing of personality were mainly reflected in both the dramas.
Language: Bengali

Rabindranather Chotogolpe Prantik Manusher Jibika ba Peshar Ekti Samikkha
Prashanta Das
Research Sholar, Dept. of Bengali, Tripura University, Tripur

Every person is attached with some or other profession. Without profession we can’t think our livelihood. The need of survival every individual have to join some profession first. In the ancient social condition profession was caste-centred. Profession-by-birth is the main source of economy. In spite of being middle-class centralization, the life style of the peripheral, subaltern human was artistically painted in Tagore’s short story. In the last decade of nineteenth century when Tagore visits the Bengal country side with the responsibility of land-lordship, he meets various subaltern peripheral people with different professions. Defeating the barriers of social bindings, he gradually endears the subalterns. In the present essay subalterns are divided into three different groups according to their profession such as-- land and production related subalterns, domestic service related subalterns and other subaltern professionals. The present essay also studies the socio-economic condition and significance of contribution of all those three professionals in isolation.  
Language: Bengali

Anya Swader Golpe Onyo Kotha : Jaladhar Sen
Dipan Das
Research Scholar, Dept. of Bengali, Kalyani University, West Bengal

Jolodhar Sen is such a short story writer in whose stories the picture of the contemporary period has emerged. In this article I have tried to show how in the stories ‘Pagal’, ‘Poran Mandal’, ‘Nasiber lekha’ ‘Bichar’ etc.  this very picture springs up.
Language: Bengali

Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in Commercial Banks: An Empirical Study
Dr. Kingshuk Adhikari, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Assam University
Mounita Nath, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Nabin Chandra College, Badarpur

Banking sector in India like many other sectors has been experiencing a rapidly changing market, new and modern technologies, economic uncertainties, changing and more demanding customer services and above all fierce competition, that has presented an unpredictable set of challenges for them. In order to face this constant evolution of new challenges, the commercial banks have to reinvent their understanding of their clients and re-examine the value and service quality to assure that they make far reaching implications in terms of service quality and customer satisfaction.  In order to be successful in the market it is not only sufficient for commercial banks to attract new customers but also concentrate on retaining existing customers implementing effective policies of  customer satisfaction.
Customer satisfaction can be considered as the essence of success in today's highly competitive world of business. Customer satisfaction increases the existing customer loyalty, repurchase process, awareness of the people about the firm, decrease the price flexibility, the cost of gaining new customers and prevent the customers being affected from competitive enterprise. With better understanding of customers' perceptions, commercial banks can ascertain the actions required to meet the customers' needs.   The present study assesses the status of customers’ satisfaction with respect to select dimensions of service quality in commercial banks operating in Silchar town of Assam.
Keywords: customer satisfaction, service quality, competition.
Language: English

Higher Education in India: An Analysis
Gautam Chandra Deb
Asst. Prof., Dept. of Commerce, Nabin Chandra College, Badarpur, Assam

The higher education system in India has grown in a remarkable way, particularly in the post-independence period, to become one of the largest systems of its kind in the world. However, the system has many issues of concern at present like financing and management including access, equity and relevance, reorientation of programmes by laying emphasis on health consciousness, values and ethics and quality of higher education together with the assessment of institutions and their accreditation. These issues are important for the country, as it is now engaged in the use of higher education as a powerful tool to build a knowledge-based information society of the 21st century. Despite, its impressive growth, higher education in India could only maintain a very small base of quality institutions. It is also encountering a few important and significant challenges. It contributes to economic and social development of the country. Globalization has resulted in significant changes in the knowledge economy and ushered new conditions for the provision of higher education to cater the skill requirement all across the globe. The present study highlights the growth of higher education sector in India, its problems and government initiatives towards improvement of higher education in India. The study will be an analytical one and based on secondary data and information.
Key Words: higher education, globalization, challenges.
Language: English

Working  Mothers  and  Problem  of  Social  Development  of  their  Children- A  Case  Study
Dr.  Runumi Devi
H.O.D., Dept. of Education, North  Gauhati College,  Guwahati, Assam

Mother plays an important role in the social development of pre-school children. During pre-school years, mother is considered as the most influential socializing agent along with other members of the family who contribute a lot in the process of socialization of her child. A child starts reacting with others emotionally from the early stages of his/her life. Attitudes of rejection or acceptance, approval or disapproval and tension or relaxation are coloured by the type of physical and emotional care that he/she receives at the early stage. Under the guidance of mother the child gradually learns what is encouraged and what is discouraged, what is valued and what is ignored in the family environment.
Nowadays, with the changes of time and requirement most of the mothers are working in different sectors with different working conditions. Diversity of their work place and working culture, educational level, living style, financial position are the  factors which ultimately influences  children’s social development in the early childhood period. To find out the problem of working mothers in the process of socialization of their children, the investigator  selected a total of 400 working mothers  having  pre-school  going  children from the greater Guwahati  area  of  Kamrup  district  of  Assam by using simple random method. The investigator collected data and information by applying naturalistic observation and interview technique. Statistical analysis of the collected data  shows that the social development of the children who were cared by their grandparents in the day time in the absence of mother are better than the children cared by the domestic workers.
Key words: Social development, pre-school, early childhood.
Language: English

Advance Learner Guided Learning Approach: An Effective Approach for Science Learning At School Stage
Jayeeta Bhattacharjee

Research Scholar, Dept. of Education, Assam University, Silchar


Advance learner guided learning approach has great implication for science learning. This approach can be used for the development of science concepts, process skills and science achievement. Science being a way of thinking, it always searches for truth and hence it requires observation, experimentation, open-mindedness etc. During experimentation children may face a lot of difficulties. In advance learner guided learning approach; both the tutor and tutee belong to the same class, so there is a democratic environment in the classroom. Tutees share their difficulties in an easy manner to the tutor and solve their problems with the guidance of tutor. Children may have different types of problems and they may attend to the problems from different angles to find the solution of the problem. Advance learner gives attention to all the problems of students and guides them in finding the solution of the problem by clarifying all their doubts.
Language: English

Role of Assessment in Improving Quality in Higher Education
Ms Piku Doley
Dept. of Education, Kamargaon College, Golaghat, Assam

Assessment is that process which measures and evaluates the student and teacher in their respective field. Assessment is needed to know the academic development of student and growth of skill and competency of teacher in the field of learning and teaching. Assessment is that process which appraises individuals’ knowledge, understanding, abilities or skills (QAA). An Assessment is a tool designed to observe students behaviour and produce data that can be used to draw a reasonable inferences about what students know (Pellegrino, 2003). Assessment is that method which helps in qualitative learning of a student. Enhancing quality education is an emerging trend in now a day. Quality education encompasses the learner-teacher relationship, learning environment, curriculum and the infrastructural facilities provided by the educational institutions. Through the process of assessment teacher or instructor able to know the students’ knowledge, understanding of the learning materials, skills in a particular course and by this knowledge teacher can provide necessary guidance for future career. Furthermore assessment is also useful in enhancing student motivation, self-concept and sense of self-efficacy. By this paper we try to draw a picture of role of assessment in enhancing quality in higher education.

Keywords: - Assessment, Quality, Higher Education

Language: English

Regionalism in the Novels of Thomas Hardy
Dr. Chittaranjan Nath
Asst. Prof. in English, Rukasen College, Bakaliaghat, Karbi Anglong, Assam


Thomas Hardy is one of the most famous regional novelists in English literature. His greatest strength as a novelist lies in his unique depiction of Wessex- a fictitious region of England. He popularized the landscape by beautifully depicting the nature and environment of the particular land and the people therein, especially highlighting the conflict between man and nature. The same physical features- hills and dales, rivers, pastures, meadows, woodland, and heaths etc. of this native land appear and reappear so prominently and vividly in Hardy’s novels that they are called the Wessex Novels, of which Far from the Madding Crowd, The Return of the Native, The Mayor of Casterbridge, Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure are the most celebrated ones. These Wessex novels have established Hardy at the height as a regional novelist. This paper attempts to illustrate the elements of regionalism present in Hardy’s novels, and thereby to reassess his greatness as a regional novelist.
Language: English

The Concept of New Woman in Anita Desai’s Clear Light of the Day and Manju Kapur’ Home
Khuraijam Artishowri Devi, Research Scholar, Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences, N.I.T. Silchar, Assam
Dr. Reena Sanasam, Asst. Professor,
Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences, N.I.T. Silchar, Assam

Anita Desai and Manju Kapur are the well known Indian women novelists who represent the pain and conflict of the modern educated women that struggle between tradition and modernity on the one hand and individuality and independence on the other hand.  The women characters in their novels choose to fight and protest against the traditional and culturally accepted norms and currents of society. They are also facing the responsibilities by trying to fit themselves in the socio cultural modes of the changed society. In Anita Desai’s Clear Light of the Day and Manju Kapur’s Home represent the image of new woman who struggle between tradition and modernity to establish her own identity by being economically independent and without depending on her male counterpart - be on the father, the husband, the brother or the son. Anita Desai and Manju Kapur in their novels delineate the image of new woman who demands to hold the same position and status like that of man in the society with equal sexuality and rights. They are the rebellious women who seek self-discovery, self-respect, self autonomy and self govern as they are caught between feudal values and the fast approaching new life.
Language: English

Psychology in Crime and Confession: A Critical Study into Poe’s Short Stories the Tell-Tale Heart and The Black Cat
Kousik Adhikari
Research Scholar, NIT, West Bengal

Psychology, crime and confession are the three essential ingredients of some of Poe’s greatest short stories. It is undoubtedly his credit that far before the introduction of psychology in legal studies and its related issues, Poe has used psychology and its associated structures like confession in his short stories that could be explored in its various theoretical and epistemological issues. His two great short stories The Tell-Tale Heart and The Black Cat, on the other hand cannot be bound into a single term of either crime or horror stories in the technical sense. These multifaceted stories, which could even be termed as a new subgenre, consisting of a classical mixing of crime, horror and detection, establish Poe as the introducer and one who has perfected this new genre. The present study aims to locate these fundamental issues of psychology, crime and confession in these two stories as a critical approach to deal with.  
Keywords: psychology, crime, confession, Poe, short story, subgenre.
Language: English

Archetypes and metaphors in the matrix of W. B. Yeats’ poetry
Manas Sinha
Asst. Prof., Dept. of English, Lala Rural College, Lala


Irish culture and landscape fascinate W. B. Yeats that often determines the nature of his poetry. Literary archetypes and metaphors are two important literary assets which elevate his poetry to a greater height. His deep knowledge of history and myth is the genesis of his archetypes and metaphors. The rich heritage of Irish tradition serves for him a fertile mine from where he picks up his raw materials for archetypes and metaphors. Poetry, in general, is enriched by the artistic implementation of archetypes and metaphors. For Yeats, these two literary tools serve dual functions: the first one enables the reader to comprehend the greater understanding of the concept and the content and the second function is to create an image that catches the psyche of an aesthetic mind of a reader. Yeats is a dreamer as well as an artist. His poetry is the art of the highest order spun out of  the creative genius. The present article in question is an evaluative attempt to locate the impact of literary devices like metaphors and archetypes in Yeats’ poetry.
Keynotes: metaphor, archetype, symbol and image.
Language: English

The Origins and the Gradual Changing in Bengali Folk Drama ‘Bolan’
Dr. Tapan Ray
Ex-Post Doctorate Fellow, Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)

The ‘Bolan’ is a popular occasional folk-drama in South Bengal. It is still very popular in rural areas as like as sub-urban areas. Recently this performing art form has been undergoing rapid modification .The authentic context of it has been changing from rural to urban context.  The inspiration for modification primarily comes from ‘Jatra pala’ and modern theatre. So the folk artists are being compelled to modify themselves to cope with the some optimistic changes in its traditional rules like stage and stage decoration or managements, lighting, costumes, acting, scripts, musical instruments and musical tunes. In this situation original context or authentic context of folk drama is being changed gradually through urbanization. In this paper I have tried to explain how the traditional performance is shifted from folk traditional context to urban context.

KEY WORDS: Bolan, Traditional performence, Modernization

Language: English

Breaking the Seals of Silence: Locating Female Voices in Anita Desai’s In Custody
Basudhara Roy
Asst. Prof., Dept. of English, Karim City College, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand

Although Anita Desai officially refuses to be labeled a feminist, a general survey of her creative oeuvre cannot fail to indicate her persistent preoccupation with women’s lives, their muted and muffled voices and the omnipresence of socially and culturally impeditive forces in their identity-formation. This paper proposes a feminist reading of Anita Desai’s In Custody, attempting to locate behind the novel’s chief concern with cultural and linguistic preservation, Desai’s caustic critique of patriarchal structures that conspire to silence women ostensibly in a show of strength but in reality to conceal fear and weakness. Charting the world of the novel through the point of view of her male protagonist Deven, Desai expertly trains her female gaze on a world of men - their endeavours, failures and accomplishments, revealing embedded within the grand narrative of the male world, a confined subculture of neglected, subordinated women who, nevertheless, refuse to be passive.  By uncovering the resistant voices of women within the male-dominated text of the novel, this paper intends to establish In Custody as Desai’s significant foray into feminism, not merely in thematic terms but in terms of narrative art as well.
Language: English

Ethnic Identity Question and the Autonomy Movement in Karbi Anglong
Lutfur Rahman Choudhury
Research Scholar, Dept. of Political Science, Assam University, Diphu Campus, Diphu

The word ‘ethnicity’ is generally used to identify groups of people who have evolved from their primitive stages of tribe and clan identity in to a more unified group looking for a coherent political identity.  The growth of the spirit of ethnicity or ethnic self-assertion among various groups leads to the aspiration for a distinct identity for themselves. Generally, the ethnic groups with a small population and faced with the competition for subsistence with the larger groups tend to suffer from an identity crisis. This very question of identity crisis of the ethnic groups impels them to resort to various sorts of ethnic movements demanding either autonomy or separation from the larger groups. The state of Assam itself has undergone several splits in the post independence period only to satisfy the ethnic aspirations of the different ethnic groups of the region. As in the other parts of the region , among the Karbis of Karbi Anglong district of Assam, the  question of  ethnic identity is responsible for the ethnic movements of the Karbis  demanding autonomy  or statehood  at different periods of times in the post independence period of the country.  
Language: English

The Development and Problems of Women Education in Post-Independence Manipur
M. Ningamba Singha,
Asst. Prof. Dept. of History, Patharkandi College, Patharkandi
M. Ninghaiba Singha,
Research Scholar, Dept. of Manipuri, Assam University, Silchar
Th. Kanchanbala Singha,
Research Scholar, Dept. of Manipuri, Assam University, Silchar

Independence India favoured for the growth of non-prejudicial education of men and women. The Constitution of India guaranteed equal status to both the sexes. The Constitution of India provides for free and compulsory education to all children irrespective of cast, creed and sex. The impact of the promulgation of free and compulsory education gave an input to the development of women education in Manipur as elsewhere in India.
The promulgation of free and compulsory Education and the setting up of ‘National Committee for Girls, 1959’ gave tremendous filling on the development of Women Education in Post-Independence Manipur. Various measures were recommended by ‘State Council for Women Education’, Government of Manipur, and many recommendations were implemented by the State Government. As such Women Education in Manipur progressed speedily during the last two decades. However, there is a wide gap between the achievement of boys and girls. The percentage of literacy of male is still higher than that of female. Women Education in Manipur is facing the problems of non-enrolment, high Wastage and Stagnation and non-availability of adequate number of lady teachers. The ‘National Education Policy, 1986’ promises to further women’s development by taking up various measures. The implementation of ‘NEP’ is full swing in Manipur, will bring about the improvement in the quality of Women’s Education in Manipur. Thus the Paper tries to focus on the development and problems of Women Education in Post-Independence Manipur with facts and figures from historical prospective.

KEYWORDS: Women Education, Development, Problems, Manipur and Post-Independence.

Language: English

Healing the Heathens: Medical Mission in North Cachar Hills
Phoibi Lalniropui Tuolor
Research Scholar, Dept. of History, Assam University, Silchar

This article examines the Welsh medical mission in North Cachar Hills, Assam from 1905 to 1961. North Cachar Hills was a sub division of Cachar district during the colonial period and was inhabited mainly by different indigenous peoples such as the Dimasas, Zeme Nagas, Angami Nagas, old and new Kukis, Khasis, Karbis, etc. The Welsh missionaries opened their mission in this Hill on 1905 with multiple endeavours such as opening schools, dispensaries and churches. The missionaries regarded the local people as ‘heathen’ which means physically and morally ill and their traditional practices of appeasing the evil spirits for their ailments as a primitive act. The missionaries believed that they were ordained by Jesus Christ to ‘civilize’ the ‘heathen’ by bringing them to Christ through conversion. Moreover the missionaries were not free from euro centrism and regarded their ideas and practices as superior than the traditional beliefs and practices of the natives. This article focuses on the traditional ways of healing sickness by the indigenous people of North Cachar Hills and the medical measures taken by the colonial government and the Welsh Mission. It also highlights the encounter between the indigenous traditional practises, the ‘colonial medicine’ and the ‘Christian medicine’
Keywords: colonial government, heathens, indigenous treatment, missionaries, evangelization.
Language: English

Train Derailment Activities of Assam In 1942
Mrs. Reeta Dutta Hazorika
Asst. Prof., Dept. of History, Narangi Anchalik Mahavidyalaya, Guwahati, Assam

The Quit India Movement (1942) was wholly different in Assam from the earlier ones. Hatred towards the British administration was spontaneously bursting out during the movement. It was helped by some directions and programme of the movement circulated by the APCC (Assam Pradesh Congress Committee) throughout the province. Many among the Congress volunteers took the path of underground activities.  One of the main objectives of the Movement in Assam was to paralyze the communication network and for this the following instruction was issued.
"All ways of Communication are to be obstructed. Big bridges are to be broken. Railway lines should be pulled off so that there may be obstruction in the military movement and bringing other articles". To realize the programme between August 1942 and March 1943 there were a series of train derailment activities in Assam.
Language: English

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