Volume-III, Issue-II, October 2014 - Pratidhwani the Echo

ISSN: 2278-5264 (Online)
ISSN: 2321-9319 (Print)
A Peer-Reviewed Indexed Journal of Humanties & Social Science
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Volume-III, Issue-II, October 2014

Language: Bengali

লোককবি বিজয় সরকারের সমাজ চেতনা
Lokokobi Bijoy Sarkarer Somaj Chetona

Hiraman Poddar
Research Scholar, Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata, India

Now a days, Communal disharmony and self-centered pragmatic attitude is not only destroying our society and culture but also our existence. Refine culture, communal harmony and fellow feeling humanity can build up a prosperous world. Lokokabi Bijoy sarkar is a glowing illustration who dedicated his life to uphold a prosperous world based upon universal brotherhood. His immortal songs have shown the ways to solve the differences of caste, creed and nationality along with superstitions. He deeply realized that human peace and welfare of human beings could be possible through the worship humanity. He dreamt of a pure society, there would be no divisions among Hindu, Mohamadans, Boudhists, Christians and haves and have-nots. From the vast experiences of his life, he realized that the meaninglessness of differences among human beings. Therefore, he tried heart and soul to save all which were really good and welfare for the human beings. He felt profoundly that to serve man is to serve God. He forbade people to look down upon other because its sin. In a nutshell, in the changing condition of society, lokokabi Bijoy sarkar΄s unparalleled invaluable writings are glowing example to all of us.

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 1-15

ছোটগল্পে দাঙ্গার প্রেক্ষিতে-প্রেক্ষাপট
Chotogolpe Dangar Prekkhit Prekkhapat
Dipan Das
Research Scholar, University of Kalyani, Kolkata, India

After the starting of Second World War, social condition was gradually become very difficult. People’s life comes into great difficulty. They have to face various dangerous social riots. These riots create very bad affect in common people’s life. The condition of peoples and society at that time, were immaculately draw by the Bengali litterateur  like, Achintya kumar Sengupta, Manik Bandopadhyay, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, Bibhuti Bhushan Mukhopadhyay ect. From this background, I discussed some selected short stories of above mentioned writers, which were written in fifty’s decade. I want to analyses the trouble of people and society which they have to face at that time.

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 16-23

Language: English

A Study on Effectiveness of Janani Suraksha Yojana for Promoting Institutional Delivery Services in Karimganj District of Assam
Rasida Begum
Research Scholar, Department of Social Work, Assam University, Silchar, India

Maternal mortality and infant mortality are among the key health indicators of any civilized society. They are the touchstone for a public health delivery system. The Indian Constitution explicitly mentions that providing health care to all citizens is the responsibility of the state. The Government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in 2005, to provide accessible, accountable, affordable, effective and reliable primary health care, especially to the poor and vulnerable sections of the population. Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) as an integral component of NRHM was launched on April 12, 2005. The main objective of this programme is to ensure that each delivery is conducted in an institution and is attended to by a Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) to prevent maternal deaths and pregnancy related complications in women and at the same time ensure the well -being of the mother and the new -born. The Yojana has identified, the Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) as an effective link between the Government and the poor pregnant women. Her main role is to facilitate pregnant women to avail Services of maternal care and arrange referral transport .This paper is prepared with the following objectives:
1. To study the
effectiveness of JSY for promoting institutional delivery services and
2. To study the roles and functions of ASHA for motivating pregnant women for institutional delivery.
Simple random sampling technique utilized for the study. Total 300 no. of ASHA selected from five BPHCs for this study. The study is based on both Primary and secondary data. Primary data collected through face to face interaction with ASHAs, interview with ASHAs, Focus Group Discussion with ASHAs, ANMs, Doctors and Health Officials. Secondary data collected from available reports, NRHM Annual records, Annual Health Survey reports, Different journals, official publication of governments etc.
Key words – ASHA, JSY, MMR, NRHM, Institutional Delivery

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 24-32

Sex Education: Its Role and Significance in Gender-biased Society
Abhisek Karmakar
Assistant Professor, Dept. Political Science, Raja Rammohun Roy Mahavidyalaya, Hooghly, West Bengal

One of the most controversial issues that the Indian society is facing over last few decades is the question of "Sex Education". Huge controversies have been seen between those who advocate it and those who oppose it. Recently, the controversy regained a momentum when the Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan said, "the so-called sex education should be banned in schools." After huge criticisms from parents, academicians and common citizens on social media forced the Health Minister to give a clarification of his comment and he clarified that he was only against the vulgarization of the sex education as a subject.
    It is needless to say that the contemporary world is circumscribed under ‘www’, i.e. World Wide Web where free low of information and knowledge is most common. So, it is very important to have proper information about every thing that is related to an individual and society. Since sexuality is a fundamental or basic instinct of any animal it is important to have [proper knowledge on it. Like other biological activities, sexuality is nothing but inalienable activity of human civilization. Though many developed countries of the West have recognized the importance of sex education many developing countries like India is still suffering from social taboos and mental constraints to identify the enormous significance of sex education in society. Actually we are in the 21 st century where the wave of cultural globalization is taking place and courtesy to internet things like pornography have become easily accessible matter.
    Due to lack of sex education gigantic myths, superstitions and taboos are seen in Indian society about sexual activities which, it may be claimed, produces undesirable consequences in the form of gender discriminations. In other words, ignorance about sex often causes gender discriminations which in Indian society are seen in many forms; such as accusing women for being impotent, accusing and torturing women for giving birth to female child etc. Therefore, this paper emphatically advocates in favour of introducing sex education to eradicate the problem of gender discrimination in society.
Key Words: sex education, gender discrimination

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 33-37

Sanskrit: A language of Science and Spirituality in the light of Arabic and Persian Translations
Dr. Meraj Ahmad Meraj
Assistant Professor& Head, Department of Arabic, Aliah University, Kolkata

The foundation of Indian culture is based on the Sanskrit language. It has enriched our society from time immemorial. Today many nations are trying to research Sanskrit writings which are there in our ancient scriptures. There is a wealth of knowledge available in Sanskrit which scientists and technologists are discovering today. Sanskrit is the foundation of Vedic literature and the Vedic literature held universal spiritual knowledge. Even the Puranas, which are considered to be the interplanetary histories and elaborations of the spiritual knowledge of the Vedic samhitas, such as the Rig, Sama, Atharva, and Yajur Vedas, all these are said to be universal in nature. The translations from Sanskrit into Arabic and Persian offer a particularly promising ground for examining Muslim approaches to Indian culture and philosophy. Translation movement between the Indian and Islamic cultures is still poorly studied. This paper is a humble attempt to clarify the significance of this translation movement.  In this paper, I will also try to delineate the role of Sanskrit Literature in shaping the science subjects into Arabic Literature as well as evaluate its mystical influence on Persian Literature in developing the spirituality.
Key Words:   Sanskrit language, Indian Culture, Science, Medicine, spirituality

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 38-42

Contribution of Nawab Siddique Hasan Khan to Arabic Language and Linguistics: A Study
Farid Uddin Ahmed
Research Scholar, English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad, India

Nawab Siddique Hasan Khan was one of the eminent scholars, writers, and reformists in the domain of Indo-Arabic literature. He had mastery over three languages namely Arabic, Urdu and Persian. He wrote about three hundred books in these trio-languages; among them fifty six books were written in Arabic and the rest of them in Urdu and Persian languages. He has contributed a lot to the various Islamic Sciences, especially the Holy Qur’ȃn, Hadith (Prophetic tradition), Tafsȋr (commentary on the Qur’ȃn), al-‘Aquaid (beliefs), al-Akhlaq (ethics), al-Tasawwuf (Sufism) etc. In addition to all these compilations, he wrote on History, Arabic language, literature and Linguistics. Apart from all these he wrote many other books on linguistics. They are well accepted by the scholars in India and abroad. His best known linguistic books are namely Laffu al-Qimȃṭ ‘ala Tashȋh ba‘i mȃ Isti‘malathu al-‘Aamma min al- Mu‘rab wa al-Dakhil wa al-Maulid wa al- Aghlat, Al-Bulagha fȋ Usȗl al-Lugha, Al-‘Alamul Khafaq min ‘Ilm al- Ishtiqȃq ,Ghusn al-Bȃn al-Muarraq bi -Muhsinat al-Bayȃn and Abjad al-‘Ulȗm. In this paper, an attempt has been made to focus on his aforementioned Arabic books, in which he has shown many linguistic observations on Arabic words and their derivations as well.

Key words: Arabic language, linguistics, Arabicized, prowess, Sind
Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 43-48

Participation of Women in Panchayati Raj and Decentralized Planning: A study in Sagar Block South 24 Parganas District of West Bengal
Subhankar Mondal, Pijush Kanti Ghosh
Research Scholar, Dept. of Rural Development & Management, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India
Dr. Sudipta Sarkar
Asst. Professor, Dept. of Rural Development & Management, University of Kalyani, West Bengal, India

Women constituting half of the population of our country have been an integral part of our social structure due to their contribution to the socio-economic development can’t possible. For sustainable socio-economic development to take place in any country, it is necessary that women participate in the political process. Panchayati Raj Institutions have always been considered as a means to good governance and 73 rdConstitutional Amendment was effected in the hope that it would lead to better governance and provide political space to the disadvantaged sections of the society like Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Women.  But still in rural India the communities have a strong division between men and women, defining and regulating their roles, responsibilities, benefits, privileges, opportunities, access and control over resources and decision making processes.  It also seen many part of the country women who are elected are not always treated with due respect, not consider their suggestions seriously and also pressurized by their husbands to approve their decisions made by the male dominated Panchayats. This study based on women elected representatives in Sagar block of South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. The present paper highlights the extent of participation of women elected representative in Panchayat and some case studies to identify the problems faced by them.
Keywords: Participation, Women, Panchayati Raj and Development.

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 49-56

Modernization in day-to-day life of Bodo Women in rural areas of BTAD- Assam
Neeta Baglari
Asst. Prof., Department Of Education, Janata College, Serfanguri, Assam

Modernization is a process of change taking place in the human society in the social, political, economic fields etc., it can basically be said to be a change in the outlook of the people. The key to understanding modernization lies in thinking of it as a set of change that affects the whole society. These changes are many and complex. Each is linked to the others. Moreover, the process is different in each country, depending on its history. The modernized countries cannot be imitated blindly. One country’s model cannot be adopted indiscriminately by another. A country must retain its entity and should not sacrifice its originality in craze for modernity. There has been unprecedented explosion of knowledge during the last few decades in a traditional- society. The quantum of knowledge is very limited and gradually increased so that one of the main aims of education i.e., preservation and maintenance of existing culture, is achieved. But in modern society, the quantum of knowledge is too vast and rate of growth is too fast. One of the important tasks of education is to keep pace with this progress of knowledge and teach the students to acquire such knowledge- ‘How’ rather than ‘What’. So process is found more important than product and critical as well as creative powers are encouraged.
Modernization has its impact among Bodo women in rural areas of Bodoland Territorial Area Districts (BTAD) in day-to-day life. Bodo women have become modernized and empowered in every aspects of life- be it style, dress, household work, education, driving, marriage, decision taking, business, job, status, health, family planning, attitude and so on. These aspects of Modernization have given different outlook to Bodo women of BTAD, Assam-India.
Key Words: Bodo Women, BTAD, Change, Culture, Empower, Modernization, Outlook, Process, Traditional

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 57-67

Problems and Prospects of Entrepreneurship: A Study on Kamrup District of Assam
Raju Dasgupta
Asst. Prof. in Commerce, Goreswar College, Baksa (BTC), Assam, India

North east India, the seven sisters, the sunrise states, have long been unable to keep pace with the development happening in rest of the country. North east India is endowed with vast number of resources which, if put into use judiciously by encouraging micro level rural entrepreneurship and integrating it with local as well as international markets. Development of rural areas is closely related to entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is a strategic development intervention that can well accelerate the development process of the backward and under developed areas. A staggering 75% of the world population lives in the rural areas. Since most of the resources and policies continue to be biased in favor of the urban areas, entrepreneurship has become a key to induce balanced development in the rural areas. Utilizing the potential productivity of rural people by using locally available resources is indispensable to achieve resilient economic growth that will help people rise above the poverty line. The study brought to light the capacity of people who came forward with the ability to use the unutilized resource. Entrepreneurs play extremely significant role of the global expedition for economic development in India. Need of entrepreneurship has highly lightened in the industrial policy of India. Empowerment through developing entrepreneurial skills in them is the right approach. This is perhaps the need of the hour.
Keywords: Balanced development, potential productivity, constant competition and empowerment.

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 68-73

Reservation and National Integration in India: An Evaluative Description
Satyajit Das
Asst. Prof., Dept. of Political Science, Government Degree College, Dharmanagar, Tripura

The most important feature of the social structure in India is the Caste system. It is the caste system on the basis of which the Indian society is divided into so many class, community and clans such as scheduled caste, scheduled tribe and other weaker sections of Indian society. For that reason the framers of Indian constitution realised to the provision of reservation for the development of the so called weaker section of the society and hence they incorporated that provision into Indian constitution. The issue of reservation plays a significant role in Indian society. The present study intends to narrate the provisions enshrined in Indian constitution for the above mentioned people and the paper also emphasis on the impact of reservation on national integration in India.
Key words: Caste system, Scheduled caste, Scheduled tribe, Reservation, National integration, Indian society

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 74-79

Maternal Health Care Services in India with Special Reference to Janani Suraksha Yojana in Assam
Rasida Begum
Research Scholar, Department of Social Work, Assam University, Silchar, India

Improvement in the standard of living and health status of the population has remained one of the important objectives in Indian planning. The right to have a safe pregnancy is a fundamental human right. The Government of India gave high priority to promote institutional deliveries to improve maternal survival as part of national policy and also being a signatory for Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ( lt 4 ). Janani Suraksha Yojana was launched in April 2005 under the umbrella of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) of India with the objective of  promoting  institutional delivery with the special focus on below poverty line and SC/ST pregnant women.  According to the report 2011, Sample Registration System,(SRS) Registrar General, Assam has recorded 390 MMR against 1,00,000 per live birth whereas the Annual Health Survey 2010-11 has recorded 381 MMR against 1,00,000 live birth. The Janani SurakshaYojana (JSY) marks an important step in realizing this right, and forms a cornerstone of the MoHFW’sstrategy to reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. The study is based on the following objectives:
  1. To study the initiatatives taken by govt. for Maternal Health and the Maternal Health Care Services provided in PHC, CHC and Sub- Centre level through Maternal Health Programmes in India.  
2.   To study the status of Janani Suraksha Yojana in Assam.
    The study is mainly based on primary and secondary data. Primary data collected through attending training and monthly meeting in health department and  visited District Hospital, PHCs, CHCs, sub- centres  and  focus group discussions (FGDs ) with doctors , ANMs, GNMs , ASHA supervisors , LHVs and health officials regarding the status of JSY and the services and facilities providing by PHC , CHC , Sub- centre level for maternal health care .Secondary  data are collected from different sources like NRHM Annual report, Coverage Evaluation Survey (CES) reports,
State Programme Impletation Plan Assam, and  official publications of govt. and health related materials both the centre and state, NRHM Operational Guideline and  Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Statistical Report.
Keywords- JSY, NRHM, RCH, Institutional delivery, Maternal Health

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 80-88

Trends and Pattern of Urbanization in West Bengal
Nasim Aktar and Chand Sultana
Research Scholars, Department of Geography, A.M.U. ALIGARH U.P, India

The present paper is an attempt to analyse the trend and pattern of urbanization in West Bengal.  Urbanization has been viewed as an important factor in the areas of economic transformation, orchestrating the breakdown of the feudal order and taking societies to higher levels of social transformation. The term urban population has been defined differently in different country depending on the local condition and criteria. With 31.89 per cent urban population, West Bengal is at a low level of urbanization as compared with the rural population which is 68.11 per cent in 2011 census. The decadal growth of urban population in West Bengal has been found to be a shade higher than the national average. While the national average is 31.16 per cent, the decadal growth rate in the state is 31.89 per cent which plays an significant role in the country’s economy.  Level of urbanization increased from 27.81 per cent in 2001 Census to 31.16 per cent in 2011 Census in West Bengal.
Urbanization, Urban population, Growth of Towns, Decadal growth rate of urban population

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 89-101

Critiquing Characters Dysfunctional Attitude and Activity: Freudian id, ego and superego in Coetzee’s DISGRACE
Giteemoni Saikia
Asst. professor, Dept. of English, Margherita College, Margherita, Assam

In this paper, an endeavor has been made to excavate the root factors of character’s dysfunctional attitude and behavior in J.M. Coetzee’s novel Disgrace. With this purview the central character of the novel has been taken for investigation. The central character of the novel, David Lurie is a man of 52 years old, holds some idiosyncratic views of his life. He is seen as mechanical and superficial towards maintaining relationships. David is virtually inadaptable towards familial as well as sexual relations. He refuses to show the token penitence asked by the University where he works. He comes to experience a deeper sense of disgrace as the title of the novel signifies. To understand the major causes of his failure in maintaining familial ties, abandonment of his profession and place, a psychoanalytical approach has been made to elucidate these traumatic situations of the character. To unravel David’s mental anxieties, disturbances, impulsive activities, psychoanalytical interpretations of Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) have been applied whose theory of the psyche often is referred today as classical psychoanalysis. In doing so, it is expected that core facts of such types of attitude and behavior of the character will be comprehensible. There are some psychological reasons behind his promiscuous behavior and abandonment of the familial tie of the above. To develop a greater understanding and appreciation of the character of David the psychoanalytical method is essential. Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytical theory of personality argued that human behavior was the result of the interaction of three component parts of the mind : the id, ego, and superego. Pamela Thurschwell opines that Psychoanalysis provides both a theory of the history of the individual mind- its early development, its frustrations and desires (which include sexual, or what Freud calls libidinal, desires) - and a set of specific therapeutic techniques for recalling, interpreting and coming to terms with that individual history. After the investigation of the character in the above light definitely it will lend a meaningful, coherent resolution of the above.
Keywords: psychoanalysis, passion, promiscuity, primitiveness, psychology

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 102-107

An Approach to Tradition Cultural of Rabha
Dhanjoy Narzary
Asst. Prof., Thong Nokbe College, Dokmoka, Karbi Anglong, Assam

The Rabhas is a distinct tribal community of the greater Mongoloid ethnic group of North East India. Anthropologically the Rabhas belong to Mongoloid stock and linguistically they are included in Sino-Tibetan group. Like other tribal groups and sub-groups of North-East India and that of Assam and Meghalaya, the Rabhas have been trying to develop the socio-cultural qualities through organized way of living. In doing so, several organizations and institutions have been organized by the Rabhas since the origin of their society. The Rabhas are mostly occupied in the North Eastern part of India, particularly in Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura. A section of the Rabhas is concentrated in Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. Besides, considerable populations of the Rabhas are also inhabited in the neighbouring countries of India like Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. Though the Rabhas are inhabiting in different parts of Assam, both in the northern and the southern bank of the Brahmaputra river, they are mostly concentrated in Goalpara, Kamrup, Darrang, Udalguri, Baksa, Nalbari, Sonitpur, Bongaigaon, Dhubri, Kokrajhar etc. In the present paper an attempt has been made to review the rich cultural tradition of the Rabha tribe so as to represent their multicolored society as well as socio-cultural background.

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 108-117

Women Participation in Panchayati Raj Institutions: A Case Study of Barak Valley
Md. Imam Uddin Ansari
Research Scholar, Dept. of Political Science, Assam University, Silchar, India

In India, Panchayati Raj Institutions assume great importance from the point of view of democratization in the political system. Article 40 of the Indian constitution lays down that   the state shall take steps to organize village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government. The architects of Panchayati Raj Institutions envisaged that not only men but also women should participate in the village panchayat. The 73 rd and 74 th amendment act is an important event in the Indian history in which 33 percent reservation has been given to women at the Panchayat and Municipal level. The reservation for women in panchayats have provided a possibility for demolishing traditional gender, caste and religious biasness but it is a long and difficult process for bringing about social change. The question remains: whether the constitutional amendment will be able to contribute to women’s empowerment or will the existing patriarchal structures continue to dominate in the society. This paper is an attempt to understand the case of elected women in Panchayat level representation and how far these types of representation lead the way to their empowerment.

Keywords: Women, Participation, Panchayati Raj Institutions
Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 118-125

Language: Bengali

ভারতীয় তাঁতশিল্প বনাম ভোগবাদী পূঁজিবাদ
Bharatiyo Tatshilpo Bonam Bhogbadi Pujibad

Abhradip Banerjee
Research Investigator, Cultural Research Institute, Government of West Bengal, India


Indian handloom industry because of its roots within rich Mughal tradition has been one of the most talked about aspects in India. Many scholars have tried to understand it from different perspectives. Some these scholars often emphasize upon the how Indian handlooms, even with many difficulties, has manage to survive the dire effects of industrialization and abrupt commercialization. Again others often emphasize upon the internal dynamics of ever changing handloom tradition which is been a cause of concern. This article first provides a brief historical account of Indian handloom industry and then through a comparative overview of three relatively distinct handlooms weaving traditions of West Bengal it tries to illuminate Indian handloom industry’s position within modern-day society which is driven by the forces of capitalism and consumerism.
Keywords: Indian Handloom Industry, Industrialization, Consumerism, Capitalism

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 126-130

Language: English

Nature of Indian politics Vis-à-vis the challenges to National Integration: An Analytical Study
Md. Asif nurjaman
M.A. in Political Science, Gauhati University, Assam, India

Like any other political system, the nature of Indian politics has been shaped and revolved around different historical, social, economic, religious and many other traditions of the society.  It is well known to all, that the performance of a political system depends upon the nature and culture of a society. So far as Indian political culture is concerned, it is in the transitional stage i.e. formative stage and still continues to evolve new features. Again, the nature of Indian politics becomes the causes of threat to national integration. National integration simply means psychological binding or in another word it means a feeling of oneness by the people of a country. A critical study of the nature of Indian politics indicates that the national integration is under threat due to many reasons which are none but the nature of Indian politics themselves like role of caste, regionalism, communalism, linguism, and politics of minorities, politics of backward classes, politics of agitation, rallies and violence, politics of secession, disintegration and terrorism.
Keywords: Indian Politics, Culture, Nature, Transitional Stage, National Integration    

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 131-141

KHAN AL –KHALILI: A Masterpiece of Naguib Mahfouz
Md Hussain Ahmed Bhuiya
Ph.D. Scholar, Deptt. Of Arabic, S.K.C School of English and foreign Languages studies, Assam University, Silchar

The main key contribution to the maturation of the Arabic Novel in modern Arabic literature is Naguib Mahfouz; he is widely recognized as the founding father of Arabic Novel. He is the most illustrious and prolific writer of fiction in the Arab World today. In his Novel Khan al- Khalili Mahfouz addressed many social and political issues. Mahfouz in this Novel succeeds in breaking the norms of the realistic Novel to create a new literary style heralding modernism in the Arabic Novel. The Novel, Written in a clear easy flowing style, paints a vivid picture of social political and religious issues and their impact on Egyptian society. This Novel constitutes a major step forward in the development of Arabic Novel. Khan al – Khalili is a great introduction to the work of Mahfouz and the rich and complicated life of modern Egypt and Egyptian. It completion marked a turning point in Naguib Mahfouz career and it reflects instead a deep concern with the lives and problems of contemporary Egyptian. The techniques of Mahfouz writings reach the Arabic Novel with a new look and standard status in the fictional world.   

Full Paper : PDF, Page No. 142-145

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