Vol-I, Issue-IV, April 2013 - Pratidhwani the Echo

ISSN: 2278-5264 (Online)
ISSN: 2321-9319 (Print)
A Peer-Reviewed Indexed Journal of Humanties & Social Science
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Vol-I, Issue-IV, April 2013

Articles (Research/Non-Research):

Contribution of Madrasa in Historical Perspective
A.H. Monjurul Haque, Research Scholar, Dept. of Arabic, Assam University, Silchar, Asssam, India.


In Islamic history Madrasas have played a vital role in building and shaping the fate of Muslim ummah from the very inception of the Islam. These Madrasas have a great contribution to religious education, which helps Muslims to know deeply about Islam. Madrasas not only fulfill religious needs of Muslims providing a great contribution to the field of knowledge and art ; but also try to make them complete human beings from every angle. Madrasas were among the first institutions onto the path of generalization of modern education. The service rendered by Madrasas is an established fact. In India these Madrasas have played an important role in protecting human, Islamic and social values. These institutions have also played an important role in the survival of Islamic practices, publication and dissemination of Islamic literature, protection of Islamic faith and development of culture and civilization besides contributing to the development of the country. These invaluable services rendered by Madrasas can’t be ignored and forgotten. In this brief research paper, efforts will be made to highlight the contribution of Madrasas on the basis of historical stand point.
Language: English

Status of Islamic Studies & Madrasa Education in India: An Over View
A.H. Monjurul Haque, Research Scholar, Dept. of Arabic, Assam University, Silchar.

Even after Independence, Madrasas in India have rendered invaluable services to the development of the community and the country. They have played a silent but significant role in educating the millions of Muslim population of the country. The services of Madrasas are not limited to spreading literacy; they are rendering invaluable services to the social, political and academic fields also. The status of Islamic studies and Madrasa education hasn’t been denied any how and there can’t be imagined the educational development of Muslim community by neglecting the Madrasas and maktabs. Ulema produced by these Madrasas provide leadership not only in religious matters but also in social & political sphers as well. Starting from Shah Waliullah to the great Ulema like Moulan Abul A’la Maududi, Moulana Quasim Nanatwi, Moulana Abul Kalam Azad and Moulan Syed Abul Hasan Ali al-Nadwi have been the most prominent personalities among Muslim leaders. They were basically the products of Madrasas and they had a close affinity with the Madrasa education. Even after accepting and appreciating the remarkable achievements of Islamic education in India, the system is till today not completely free from various draw backs and shortcomings. In this brief research paper efforts have been made to highlight the status of Islamic studies and Madrasa education in India with it’s major drawbacks and some remedial measures.
Language: English

Muhammad Wadeh Rashid Al- Hasani Al-Nadwi : His Life and Works
Abul Mufid Md Hassan, Research Scholar, Arabic Department, Assam University, Silchar.


Muhammad Wadeh Rashid Nadwi (b. 1935) is an eminent Arabic writer and journalist of contemporary India. He has born in a very well-known and highly educated family of Rai-Bereli, Uttar Pradesh. He got his early education from Ilahia School at Rai-Bereli and studied Islamic sciences and Arabic language and literature at Darul Ulum Nadwatul Ulama, Lucknow. He obtained his graduation in English honours from Aligarh Muslim University and started his professional life as an Arabic translator and presenter in All India Radio, New Delhi and worked there for twenty years; from 1953-1973 to be exact. In 1973, he joined  Darul Ulum Nadwatul Ulama as a teacher of Arabic Language and literature and was promoted to the post of Dean, school of languages. He became the secretary for education of Darul Ulum Nadwatul Ulama in 2006 and till date he is doing this prestigious job actively and efficiently. Apart from this, he has been a member of many academic organizations, and educational institutions in India and Abroad with full of honour and dignity.
Wadeh Rashid Nadwi is an eminent scholar of Islamic sciences and Arabic language and literature; he has a very good knowledge about English literature and western culture and thus he has established himself as a prominent writer through his skilful writings. He has written many books, articles, research papers on different literary, religious and social issues. He is a famous Arabic journalist as well and presently working as Chief Editor of Al-Raid (a fortnightly Arabic News paper) and Deputy Editor of Al-Basul Islami (a monthly Arabic Magazine), both are published from Darul Ulum Nadwatul Uluma, Lucknow.

Language: Arabic

Swarnakumari Devi o Narisikshar Sekal
Dr. Geeta Saha, Vice-Principal, Rabindrasadan Girls' College, Karimganj, Assam, India.

The attempt of this paper is to show the contribution of Swarnakumari for the development and expansion of women education in her time. Being born as fifth daughter in a progressive family Maharshi Debendranath Tagore and elder sister of Rabindranath Tagore she herself knocked by barriers of conservative societies superstations. Though she was a lady of an enlightened and reputed family yet it was not an easy task for doing something for the society especially for women hood. Despite of all societal restrictions the first lady novelist in Bengali literature remarkably contributes for women, which are reflecting in her works. She contributed much more in almost all the branches of Bengali Literature like fiction, poems, novel, drama etc. In political field also for the benefit of the society especially for women she established one women organization called ‘Sakhisamiti’, which aim to educate the poor women and to make them self-dependent by teaching some practical courses like tailoring, painting, embroidery etc.
Language: Bengali

Bharotiyo Somaj Chetonay Manasa Nagini Na Nari?
Smt. Anita Goswami (Jash), Deptt. of Bengali, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam


According to Indian way of life woman is a benevolent force, the other name of sacrifice, an all-embracing, all enduring presence like the earth herself. Woman who chooses to be different from this and is rebellious by nature is consieded in the eyes of society, an outcast, a disgrace to her kind.
Manasa in ‘Manasamangal Kabya’ is one such exception. Hence in the eyes of society, she is cruel, conniving, a venomous being, completely inhuman. But if we go beyond the surface and delve deep into her world, she emerges as the eternal woman before our eyes as we come to meet in her a daughter, a wife, a mother ever so gracious. For she is not venomous by birth, she has been made so by her surroundings and near and dear ones. Life-long strife, torture and exploitation have made her vengeful and vicious. No one gave her space. She had to fight for every inch of the ground beneath her feet.
Had she not been cheated by life, she would have been gracious and kind like many others; she would have been a source of life.

Language: Bengali

Bibhutibhushan : Ichamatir Bhinno Dhara
Sushmita Nath, Asst.Professor, N.C. College, Badarpur, Assam, India.

Bibhutibhushan Bondopadhyay is one of the bright stars in the sky of Bengali literature. When India as well as Bengal is in an uneasy environment in social and literature and it is seems the influence of Second World War. In this situation Bibhutibhushan appeared in the sky of Bengali literature with new quiet, natural plot of nature. ‘Pather Panchali’ is the first novel written by Bibhutibhushan. ‘Ichhamati’ novel is also specially acceptable to readers just like his first novel. Some part of this novel was published in the monthly magazine ‘Abbhyuday’ and in the month of January, year 1950 it is published in the book form. In ‘Ichhamati’ novel Bibhutibhushan Bondhopadhyay has described the quiet, natural landscape and also reflected the socio-economic situation of the villages of Bengal very artistically.
Language: Bengali

Amar Mitrer 'Aswacharita' : Probohoman somoyer Kahini
Rupdatta Roy, Asst. Professor, N.C College, Badarpur, Assam, India

For last three decades in the last century modernist sensibility were changing rapidly as the Indian life was opening up to the post modernist tendencies. As a result, Bengali novels were undergoing metamorphic changes. Bengali novelists started to look beyond the established example of novels. Amar Mitra one of the tactful narrators of this time reconstructed history and tradition in his novels. He introduced the magic present inside the reality and the new dimension of myth from the womb of historical part. In the novel ‘Aswacharita’ (1979) the rhythm of time and space is entirely distorted when adherence of empty back horse and the charioteer after the great departure of Siddartha, the prime of Kapilabastu, is connected with the nuclear bombing in Pakistan on the day of Buddha Purnima and this creates a diverse implication of multidimensional time.
Language: Bengali

Bohuswarik Uponyas : 'Aranya-banni'
Dr. Prabhakar Mandal, Asst. Prof., Dept. of Bengali, Naharkatiya College, Naharkatia, Dibrugarh.

‘Aranya Banhi’ a famous novel of Tara Sankar Bandopadhaya was published in the year 1966. The novelist established his linguistic architect of art which is completely new and exceptional in nature in the field of literature. The main objective of the novel is a psychological effect of the lower class of people in the society who were being oppressed by the comparatively higher Section of people and the British Administrator. At the same time it reflected the atmosphere of opposion and helplessness of this class. In the context of novel Nayan Pal a spokesperson sometimes interacted with the novelist, history and himself. But the members of the revolutionary party of Sauntals. Interacted themselves in a different manner. Thus the novel Aranya Banhi is became a polipheric novel (Bahuswar).Tarasanker Bandapadhyaya was always against the colonialism. The novel itself represented the opinion and ideas of the downtrodden community. The main theame of Aranya Banhi is deals with the activity of revolutionary association and their necessary rules and regulations of Sauntals. If we go through the novel we came to know the life style, Behavior and culture of the Sauntal community of that period. The novelist who was aware of historical background of this people wanted to focus the motto of mutiny of the Sauntalis. At the same time he tried to describe the exclaimatory environment associated with Japanese people of 1645 and Sauntals of 1854. At the end we can conclude that the novel is the mirror of the Sauntalis who are still fighting for their freedom.

Language: Bengali

Sunil Ganguly : Kichu katha Kichu Smriti
Amit Dey, UGC-NET(JRF), Research Scholar, BHU,Varanasi, India.

In the era of Bengali literature Sunil Ganguly (1934 – 2012) is an unforgettable name. His sudden departure has emotionally moved both the Bengals. Irrespective of political and non-political regions, people have attended his cremation. In reality behind Sunil, a litterateur, their remained ever friendly and charitable heart. He could win the hearts with ease. His literary sensibility took its shape from his intensity to express his inner self. He was not a born artist but moulded himself as an artist through deep devotion to literature. He never wrote to earn his bread but to quench the thirst of his heart. His contribution to Bengali literature is not a new matter. Some undiscovered fields about the person Sunil behind a litterateur Sunil have been tried to point out in the writing "Sunil Ganguly : Kichu katha Kichu Smriti".
Language: Bengali

Industrial Accidents in Bricks Industry:A Case Study in Karimganj District of Assam
Manash Das, Research Scholar, Dept. of Commerce, Assam University, Silchar
Asst. Prof., Dept. of Commerce,  Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam, india.       

The article focuses on nature of accidents in brick industry. Safety and security lapses are resulting in accidents and injuries in industries and hence they need to be prevented.  Govt. of India has been taking various measures in order to prevent accidents. Factories Act, 1948 provides some guidelines for the prevention of industrial accidents. The various provisions relating to safety are mentioned from Sec.21 (fencing of machinery) to Sec.41 –H (Right of workers to warn about imminent danger).For this write up, the author of this paper discusses few of the sections of provisions regarding the safety of workers which are  relevant for   bricks industry; such as section 34,35,36 38 40A, &40B.   Workmen’s Compensation Act 1923(was known as Employee’s Compensation Act 1923) makes it obligatory for the employers, brought within the ambit of the Act, to furnish to the State  Governments/Union Territory Administration annual returns containing statistics relating to the average number of workers covered under the Act, number of compensated accidents and the amount of compensation  paid.  In this paper, the author has tried to highlight a picture of the accidents in bricks industry of karimganj District. The author mentions various statutory provisions of safety measures prescribed in the Factories Act 1948. Some of which are relevant and applicable in bricks industry that are explained in section-IV of this paper.   Training and awareness are the proactive development of knowledge, attitude, behaviour and skill of the workers. Good safe attitude, behaviour and skill evolved by the safety education contribute to the overall accident reduction programme in the brick industry. The present paper aims to study the availability of provisions and the implementation of these provisions in brick industry of karimganj District.
Keywords:  Industrial accident, Brick Unit, Compensation, Training Programme, Skilled Workers, Fireman, Fired Bricks, Sun- fired Bricks, Kiln, Emission, Chimney, First- Aid, and Clay.
Language: English                                          

Micro-Finance and its Inter-State Disparities in North-East India
Dr. Amith Roy, Assistant Professor in Economics cum HOD,  Department of Economics, Nilambazar College, Nilambazar-788722


Microfinance refers to the provision of various financial services like savings, credit, money transfers, insurance etc. in small doses for the poor to enable them to raise their income levels and improve living standards. The North-East Region is one of the back-ward regions of India characterized by low per-capita income, low capital formation, in-adequate infrastructure facilities, geographical isolation and communication bottleneck, inadequate exploitation of natural resources like mineral resources, hydro power potential, forests etc. Present paper highlights the microfinance programme in North-East India and its inter-state variation regarding various aspects like volume of savings, loan disbursement and loans outstanding. The Microfinance programme in India started near about two decades back. But its progresses are not uniform throughout various region and states. Assam is the leader state of North-Eastern region shows relatively better performance compare to the other states of North-East. On the other hand, Sikkim shows relatively poor performance. The differences in the progress of scheme in the North-eastern states are mainly due to differences in communication facility, literacy, geographical positions and moreover the differences between the activities and availability of the banking agencies. The study also reveals that performance of Commercial Banks to promote such scheme is much better, whereas the performances of Regional Rural Banks and Co-operative are relatively poor.

JEL Classification: G21
Keywords: Microfinance, Self-help Groups, North-East and Inter-state Disparities.

Language: English

The Unheard Voices- Empowerment of Women through Participation Socially, Economically, and Politically in India
Pranjali Dighe & Sunny Wadhwaniya, Center for Studies in Social Management, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar


The discrimination and exploitation  of women is seen all over the world. The empowerment is an aid to help women to achieve equality with men or, at least, to reduce gender gap considerably. Women play a very strategic role in the development of society in particular and development of economy in general. Since empowerment is considered a multidimensional concept, it is determined by many socio-economic factors and cultural norms. In this paper, an attempt is made to explore the possible determinants of women empowerment using the data from the secondary sources.    Empowering women is the only solution for all questions. Her potential hidden power is to be utilized for which, her status in the society must be improved and economically she should be strengthened The true empowerment of the women is only when all this three factors i.e. social, economic and political are simultaneously address and made compatible with each other therefore for holistic development of women to happen the impact of all this three factors should be cover effectively. Thus, the paper sheds lights on role of key indicators in the empowerment of women by participating socially, economically and politically , it also argues for programme that enhance autonomy of women.
Key words: empowerment, holistic development, compatible, potential presence
Language: English

Trend and Performance of Major Food grain Production
(A Study of Central Brahmaputra Valley Zone of Assam during 1971-2010)
Soma Dhar, Research Scholar, Department of Economics, Assam University, Silchar- 788011


In the 21st century also, agriculture continues to be a fundamental instrument for sustainable development and poverty reduction in developing countries. Population of the developing world overwhelmingly concentrated in rural areas. Assam is one of the states of North Eastern India with a total geographical area of 78438 square km. About 86 percent of its total population live in the rural areas (2011 census) with 70 percent directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture and 55 per cent of the workforce actually engaged in agricultural activities. Yet Assam’s agriculture has made very little headway towards modernisation. Agriculture in Assam is still characterised by small holdings, low crop intensity, low productivity, low level of technology, meagre irrigation facilities. Central Brahmaputra Valley zone is situated in the centre of the state Assam occupying 7.04 percent of its total geographical area. Foodgrain is the predominant crop of the zone accounting for more than three fourths of the gross cropped area since the early 1970’s. The decade-wise annual average growth rate of area, production and yield of major foodgrain crops in Central Brahmaputra Valley and Assam has been calculated for five periods, 1971-80, 1981-90, 1991-2000, 2001-10 and 1971-2010. The growth rate of production of total foodgrains during all the sub periods till 2000 was higher for Central Brahmaputra Valley than the state as a whole and the difference became more prominent during 1991-2000. It was only during 2001-10, Assam attained higher growth rate of production of total foodgrains.
Keywords: Annual Growth rate, Performance of agriculture and productivity of foodgrain.

Language: English

Socio Economic Status of Women Vendors in Towns of Kokrajhar District
Roselin Basumatary, 
Asstt. Professor, Economics, Kokrajhar Govt. College, Kokrajhar, Assam, India
Email: - 

The study aims to examine the personal profile, family profile, migratory status, living, working and economic conditions of the women vendors of the towns of Kokrajhar district. It also aims to access their health condition.  To study the socio-economic status of the women vendors, data was collected from the sampled women vendors with the help of a questionnaire. Data collected from the sample was entered in SPSS (V.13) and analysis was done. The finding of the study will help the people especially the policy makers to know the socio-economic condition of the women vendors. It will help in planning for the welfare of such workers.
Language:  English

A Historical Background of Tea in Assam
Gadapani Sarma, Assistant professor, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam, India.


Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Tea in India is so popular that liking for it has reached the point of adoration. The best quality tea in India pours chiefly from Assam. It was way back in 1823 that Robert Bruce . a merchant and soldier, first spotted tea plant in Assam and this eventually led to East-India company developing a trade in it. A visit from Dr. Wallich to Assam in 1834 saw the formation of the Assam Company in England. Among the Indians, it was, however, Maniram Dewan, an Assamese noble man, who initiated planting tea leading many others, mostly Assamese, to follow in his footsteps. After independence, as the scenario change, Indian Companies like-Birla Tata entered the fray to become biggest producers of the coveted “Assam Tea”. The picture, however, is not completely rosy as the tea plantation, tea-estate have been severely affected in recent years by the militancy in the state. Dwindling economic condition, stiff competition in international market and recurrent slumps have not helped the cause either. This paper is an earnest effort to highlight the historical background of the development of tea industry of Assam.
Language: English

Politics of Economic Blockade: A Case of Manipur Experience
Hawaibam Herojit Singh, Research Scholar, Dept of Political Science, Assam University, Silchar, Assam, India-788011
Email:    herojit19@gmail.com


Considering the significance and effects of economic blockade in the region, the paper tries to study various facades of issues surrounding politics of economic blockade in Manipur by highlighting recent example of the economic blockade undertaken by Naga or NSCN (I-M) and their cognate groups and Sadar hills Districthood Demand Committee or Kuki-Chin groups on the National High Way no. 2 and 37.  The paper tries to argue that economic blockade in Manipur is not to be treated simply as means to pressurize the union and state government as claimed by NSCN and Kuki groups for it has its larger impact on the normal life or against the Right to life of the people in the state particularly the community settling in the valley. It also, however, suggests that the impact of economic blockade extend to all the people of Manipur including the periphery people. The paper also addresses whether the economic blockade is legitimate or not. Therefore economic blockade is not simply an outcome of the policy failures of the state, but also a serious manifestation of ethnic conflicts which have been tormenting Manipur for the last few decades.   
Key words:   Economic Blockade, Ethnic Conflict, Civil Society, National Highway, Territorial Integrity, Manipur
Language: English

Problems and Prospects of Women Entreprenureship in Sonowal Kachari Society
Baby Sonowal Hazarira, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Economics, Rabindrasadan Girls’ College, Karimganj, Assam


Assam, the land of blue hills and green forestry, is one of the tribal living states of India. The total number of tribal population is highest in Assam as compared to other North-Eastern states. There are fourteen (14) schedule tribes inhabit in Assam. SonowalKacharis inhabit over upper Assam covering seven districts viz-Dibrugarh, Tinsukia, Dhemaji, Lakhimpur, Sivasagar, Jorhat and Golaghat. Some of SonowalKachari people inhabit in Arunachal Pradesh also. Among these districts of Assam Dibrugarh district is the largest inhabitat of SonowalKacharis. According to 1991 population census the total SonowalKachari population was 2,51,727. It has increased to 3,12,656 in 2001 in the state of Assam. The development of a society requires full participation by all section of the population including women. Involvement of women in entrepreneurial activities would ensure effective utilization of labour, generation of income and hence improvement in quality of life. It is realized by all the nations that social and economic changes can be ensured mobilizing women to take up entrepreneurial activities. The present studies seek to examine the economic activities and also problems faced by them in their various entrepreneurial activities in the society. Thus the present paper carries a great importance to study about the position of entrepreneurial activities among women in sonowalkachari society. The present study is based on data collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary data are collected from field survey through direct personal interview with the help of well-designed questionnaire. The SonowalKachari women are in recent time very much interested in entrepreneurial work. But it has been observed that like other community women the rate of growth of women entrepreneurship is not enough among them. This is due to some basic problems arises in relation to entrepreneurial development in such societies. By considering all this sides the present paper is prepared with the objectives like, level of education, Causes of selecting this profession, age- group, training, finance etc. Based on all the objectives the present paper is presenting the main problems faced by the women entrepreneur like lack of education, lack of finance, lack of training etc. After identifying different problems the paper includes some suggestions to solve it.
Language: English

Deforestation in Garo Hills and its impact
Manoj Kumar Hazarika, Lecturer,Department  of  Economics, TarabhusanPal Junior  Science College. Karimganj, Assam

The state was declared a full-fledged state of the Indian Union on January 21, 1972. The state of Meghalaya comprises Khasi, Garo and Jaintia hills. The scheduled tribe populations (mainly belonging to khasi, Jaintia and Garo tribes) constitute 85.53% of the total population. The Garos inhabit western Meghalaya, the Khasiscentral Meghalaya and the Jaintias eastern Meghalaya. This topic will be confirmed to the issue of deforestation which is considering as the major cause of degradation of environment in Meghalaya especially in East Garo Hills district. For our study wewill consider both primary as well as secondary data. This research topic will deal with the objectives like, causes of deforestation, its impact on eco-system, effect on socio-economic condition, implementation of Government policies etc. According to the State of Forest Report), the actual forest cover of the state is 15,584 sq. km in 1991 which has come down to 15,584 sq.km. in 2001. This accounts for around 69.5% of the state’s geographic area. Per capita forest area in the state is 0.64 hectares compared to the national average of0.11 hectares. However, the total recorded forest area is 9,496 sq. km. The Un-classed Forests, managed by Autonomous District Councils, village durbars and other traditional institutions, and private owners cover an area of 8,372 sq. km.  It has been observed that,the  area under forest has been decreasing at a faster rate  in the Garo Hills due to many special reasons. The shifting cultivation is one behind it, for which there is a decrease in primary productivity of natural, agro-ecosystems, loss in fertility, soil etc. Again , the number of wood-mills are also increasing and cutting the trees for sale or plup.The previous cool weather is now transforming to hotter and hotter day by day, mainly due to deforestation and it is carrying some disease to the people.

Language: English

Poetical Noises of a Novelist’s Heart: A Study of James Joyce as a Poet
Tanmay Chatterjee, Research Scholar, Department of English, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi – 221005
Email: eemaziitian@gmail.com


James Joyce, who is mostly celebrated for his novels such as A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake, also composed poetry. Two existing volumes of his poems are Poems Penyeach and Chamber Music. Although we are not likely to find in Joyce’s poetry the artistic grace of his fiction, his poems are of much significance in the sense that they help us to explore Joyce, the artist as well as Joyce, the man. He seems to unlock his heart through his poems. They are saturated with his emotions and desires, frustrations and anger, disappointments and disillusions. Joyce himself conceived of his poems as musical noises interpreting moods. He used his poems as an escape from the literalism of his meticulously detailed and precisely accurate exposition of the ordinary; in them he records his yearnings and his transient states of feeling. They are mood music. The present paper intends to study various aspects of Joyce’s poetry.
Language: English

Selected poems of Yeats : close reading in the perspective of their impact on Jibanananda Das’ poetic self
Manas Sinha, Asst. Professor, Dept. English, Lala Rural College


Literature embodies universal aspect of mankind. Man is the centre; Nature is the guiding force. The co-relation between Man and Nature speaks of the essence of elemental unity. W.B.Yeats and Jibanananda Das are the exponents of this essential unity. Their poetic visions appear to spring from an identical imaginative power. The result is a sense of likeness between them in terms of poetic vigour and poetic thought process. This likeness is, of course, creative. Their certain poems echo one another cutting across the geographical distance between India and Ireland. In the Irish context, W.B. Yeats, a great modern English poet, is significant in any study that seeks to examine the circuits of cultural relationships within societies having an unequal relationship as between England and Ireland.  It was under the influence of John O’Leary, Lady Gregory, Douglas Hyde, Maud Gonne and some others that Yeats developed an interest in Irish nationalism and went through Irish patriotic literature. This opened up for him an Ireland rich in myths and legends.  Jibanananda Das, a great modern Bengali poet, can be related in this purview of the study. Both Yeats and Das saw their respective nations as colonies of the British imperialism. So there was an apparent common situation between these two nations. The poems of both Das and Yeats tended to be somewhat moulded by myths and legends. Both extract their essential imageries for their poems from respective myths and folklores. Moreover, the knowledge of history and the cultural heritage of the respective country widen the scope of their poetic imagination and outlook which enables them to recreate past glory and contemporary landscape. However, Das, unlike Yeats, appeared to be disinterested in contemporary political movements. Nevertheless, a sense of nationalism pervaded their poems. In Yeats’ case, it was the fusion of both political and cultural; in Das’ case, it was mere cultural, more akin to the aspects of Nature. Being a lecturer of English, Das might have  been well versed in Yeats’ poetry. In the process,  Yeats’ poetry holds an impact upon the poetry of Das.
Language: English

Ethnic Modernism: Reading Richard Wright’s Native Son   
Soma Das, Assistant professor, Dept. of English, karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam, India.

Literary modernism as stated by Rita Keresztesi , "grew out of a prejudiced, racially biased often xenophobic historical context that necessitated a politically conservative and narrow definition of modernism in America". Modernism emphasizes neutrality of culture and in the context of American modernism it is important to question this claim and focus on the importance of the contribution of African American writers writing in what is taken to be the period of American literary high modernism. From the early decades of the 20th century there was a marked change in the racial,ethnic and cultural makeup of the nation and with this change literary modernism also changed in its form and context. The active participation of African Americans and other minority groups , as immigrants and ethnics , advanced the course of literary modernism in the United States of America . Sacvan Bercovicth in The Cambridge  History of American Literature: Prose Writing 1910 – 1950  refers to Jean Toomer’s Cane ( 1923 ) as “the high point of achievement of American Ethnic modernism" .It is pointed out that this African American Text is modernist in its concern with “psychological scrutinity, bohemian self searching , increasing ethnic expression , and engagement with new ideologies" .The contention of this paper is to highlight further development of American ethnic modernism in a seminal African American novel : Richard Wright’s  Native Son. Apart from psychological scrutiny and ethnic expression, Richard Wright’s novel is an engagement with certain important issues such as generational tensions, urban space and alienation which are important ethnic thematic concerns as well as issues underlying modernist emphasis.
Language: English

Political Phenomena in Barak-Surma Valley During Medieval Period
Dr. Sahabuddin Ahmed, Associate Professor, Karimganj College, Karimganj, Assam, Email: sahabuddinahmed7@gmail.com


After the fall of Srihattarajya in 12 th century CE, marked the beginning of the medieval history of Barak-Surma Valley. The political phenomena changed the entire infrastructure of the region. But the socio-cultural changes which occurred are not the result of the political phenomena, some extra forces might be alive that brought the region to undergo changes. By the advent of the Sufi saint Hazrat Shah Jalal, a qualitative change was brought in the region. This historical event caused the extension of the grip of Bengal Sultanate over the region. Owing to political phenomena, the upper valley and lower valley may differ during the period but the socio-economic and cultural history bear testimony to the fact that both the regions were inhabited by the same people with a common heritage. And thus when the British annexed the valley in two phases, the region found no difficulty in adjusting with the new situation.
Keywords: Homogeneity, aryanisation, autonomy.

Language: English

Manipuri Queens in the Royal House of Tripura: A Historical Study
Memchaton Singha, Assist. Prof. Dept. of History, Rabindra Sadan Girls’ College, Karimganj.

Manipur and Tripura are two important states of North east India with a long glorious history of its own. Both the states maintained cordial relationship from the very early period despite regular intervals of conflicts. Marriage alliances between the royal families of Manipur and Tripura were common which began from remote antiquity and continued till 20 th century. The instance of first marriage alliance between Manipur and Tripura is recorded to be occurred during the reign of Tripuri king Taidakshin around 5 th century A.D.  However, the most notable cases of matrimonial alliances between Manipur and Tripura started towards the end of 18 th century. The Rajas of Tripura married not only Manipuri princesses but also many Manipuri girls belonging to plebeian family. Among them many girls were inhabitance of Tripura who came during the Burmese invasion of Manipur. The marriage alliances not only brought cordial relations between the two kingdoms but also there was cultural assimilation. The tradition of marrying Manipuri girls were even followed by many noblemen of the Tripura royal family. Tripura also witnessed various public welfare works that was contributed by the Manipuri Maharanis. Thus, we find that the Tripura royal house was filled with descendents from the Manipuri queens.
Language: English

British Colonial Policy of Line System & Immigration Issue in Assam (1911-1931)
Bodhi Sattwa Kar, Research Scholar, Department of History, Assam University, Silchar, email: bodhi.kar@gmail.com


The British Colonial authorities encouraged immigration in Assam purely on economic ground. The establishment of tea and other industries in Assam during nineteenth century followed by the extension of cultivation of wastelands necessitated to follow a liberal immigration policy by the Colonial rulers. Accordingly, good numbers of immigrant labourers and cultivators were brought for the purposes from outside the Brahmaputra valley to fulfill the economic interest of the Colonial rulers. The majority of the immigrant cultivators came from the adjoining Bengal districts of Assam, among which largest numbers were Mymensinghia Mohammedans who were good cultivators. But soon it became a threat to the indigenous people. The large scale immigration led to a shift in the demographic balance of the Brahmaputra valley. To restrict the indiscriminate settlement by the immigrants the Colonial officials of Nowgong distrct in 1916 devised administrative measures known as Line system, which was followed by Colonisation scheme. These were the only steps taken by the Colonial rulers to solve the immigrant problems in Assam, but failed and it gradually turned into communal, racial and political questions in the Brahmaputra valley.
Language: English

Socio-Economic Impact of Coal Mining Industry in Assam (1826-1947)-  A Historical Study
Sanjay Sen, Ph.D Scholar, Dept. of History, Assam University, Email: sanjaysen58@yahoo.com


This article is based on both primary and secondary sources which highlight the origin and growth of coal mining industry in Assam and also highlight the socio-cultural and economic changes due to industrialization in coal sector during colonial period.  
Key words: Mining Industry, Industrial Revolution, Legacies, agency, Naga-Patkai belt.

Language: English

A Study of the Temples of Barak Valley during the reign of the Kachari Kings
Kalpana Sen, PhD Scholar, Department of History, Assam University, Email-kalpana.sen.sen@gmail.com       


Barak Valley, erstwhile Cachar, was ruled by a number of state powers in the pre-colonial period. Though ruled by different state powers, the land had been an example of social and cultural coexistence and assimilation of different culture and faith. The Dimasas were the last to rule the land before it was annexed to the territory of British India in 1832. On the backdrop of the above transition, the present paper would be an attempt to study the different Temples established through the efforts and patronage of the Kachari Kings, to trace the historical background behind the evolution of the Temples, to highlight the various religious practices evolved centering the Temples, the process of acculuturation of the Dimasas and their adaptation of Brahminical Hinduism. It is noteworthy that Barak Valley has a number of Temples built during the reign of Kachari Kings viz.., Ranachandi temple at Khaspur and Bijoypur, Bharkhola, Sri Sri Bhuvaneshwar Temple at Sonai, Nrimata Temple at Ujaan Nagar,  Barkhola, which has enriched the socio-religious tradition of this Valley.
Language: English

The Charter Act of 1833: A Study
Hrishikesh Brahma, Ph.D Scholar, Department of History, C.M.J. University, Shillong, Meghalaya, Email: hrkesh@yahoo.in


The Charter Act of 1833 marked the beginning of a system of government for all India. Later, it adopted a representative character, which distinguished it fundamentally from the earlier rule of despotism. It marked the beginning of the Indianisation in services. It also tried to separate and decentralize executive and legislative functions.
Language: English

E-Commerce: Socio-Economy Impact
Prasenjit Nath, Research Scholar, CMJ University, Shillong, Meghalaya.
E-Mail: Prasenjit77@Hotmail.Com

The article explores the economic and social impact of E-commerce. Indian’s E-Commerce market is at early stage, but it is growing faster and expected to see huge growth over the next four to five years. Even though there are only under-10 million internet users who actually buy online in India, there are about 150 million internet users or around 75 million households that are 'ready' for E-commerce. Almost 57 per cent of E-commerce sales come from small towns, while the eight metros account for the remainder. According to IAMAI, current E-Commerce market in India is around $ 10 billion in 2012, out of which the travel industry alone contributes $8.4 billion. The  first Indian E-Commerce site Fabmart.com (now known as IndiaPlaza) was founded by Mr. K. Vaitheeswaran in 1999. With E-Commerce flourishing on one side,  Social Media in India  has also rooted itself very well. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Pinterest, etc are now the part of a mango man’s daily routine. Some of the most popular items imported by Indians include pharmaceutical products, branded and unbranded apparel, accessories, and electronic goods like mobile, smart phone, laptops, iPod etc. Payments through online banking, PayPal and mobile banking are affectively contributing to the growth of E-Commerce. Availability of e-books, songs, games and films are also accelerating the growth of E-Commerce. For a developing country such as India, one of the most important benefits of E-Commerce is its potential to help a developing rural community to leap-frog into the knowledge paradigm. E- Commerce is providing useful resource for growth of microfinance and traditional Micro and Small Enterprises (MSE) in rural areas like Bodoland Territorial Area Districts (BTAD) of Assam. The positive effects of E-Commerce can be accelerating the commercial growth to have a profound impact on the socio economy of rural community like BTAD of Assam.
Keywords: E-Commerce, MSE, BTAD.

Language: English

E-Commerce in silk industry of Assam: A critical study

Mithun Chandra Roy, Research Scholar, CMJ University, Meghalaya, Shillong

In today’s over changing market, it is very difficult for the business to survive without proper marketing facility and the influence have clearly shown in the silk industry of Assam which is flourished but the over changing modern technology affect in silk industry of Assam. Now a days most of the business sectors adopting modern technology and flourish  on the contrary  the silk industry of Assam which is now centered in Sualkuchi known as  the Asia’s largest silk village have fallen on bad days and unable to face competition from modern technology with the fast growing modern weaving techniques and more of that unable to compete the powerloom products. The produce of Sualkuchi depending on age-old and traditional method of weaving started to see its downfall. This article comprising about the benefits of E-Commerce in an organisation and an overview of silk industry of Assam.
KEYNOTE: Prospects of E-Commerce and silk industry of Assam.  

Language: English

Neoliberalism, Liberalism and Development Practice: A Theoretical Exploration in the Context of the Changing Role of the State
Paramita Roy, Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan 731236, India. Email:proy669@gmail.com


Neoliberal measures involve worldwide flows of capital, communication and manufactured goods. The commonly held perception that such laissez faire policies remain confined only to the realm of the economy is a misconception. Neoliberalism builds up networks that make the boundaries of the social world fluid and even more pervasive. The effect of the era of dirigisme on economic inequality has seriously destabilized the hope on the welfare state.  Development practice is facing a challenge to prove itself to revive the belief of the people on the state. The ‘open’ world has a significant effect on local development. The state is also conspicuously facing the challenges of  adapting a best practice of welfare service delivery.
Key words: development practice, role of state, neoliberalism, liberalism

Language: English

Patachitra of Orissa: A Case Study of Raghurajpur Village
Nibedita Das, Research Scholar, Department of Visual Arts, Assam University Silchar


Patachitra paintings are the pictogram of the most popular living traditions in the art world of Orissa. The paintings are traditionally practiced by local artisans in the village of Raghurajpur. Patachitra paintings of Orissa exhibit the strong line and brilliant colour that are the two principal aspects of Orissa folk painting. The paper looks at the history of evolution of the patachitra styles, technique and use of raw materials.  Article focuses on the present scenario of patachitra paintings of Raghurajpur and how the village painters express their skill through colours and lines. The paper draws upon the analysis of the treatment of lines applied in the paintings.
Language: English

D. M. Armstrong on the Identity Theory of Mind
Shanjendu Nath, Associate Professor, Dept. of Philosophy, Rabindrasadan Girls’ College,Karimganj,Email:nathshanjendu@gmail.com


The Identity theory of mind occupies an important place in the history of philosophy. This theory is one of the important representations of the materialistic philosophy. This theory is known as "Materialist Monist Theory of Mind". Sometimes it is called "Type Physicalism", "Type Identity" or "Type-Type Theory" or "Mind-Brain Identity Theory".  This theory appears in the philosophical domain as a reaction to the failure of Behaviourism. A number of philosophers developed this theory and among them U. T. Place, J. J. C. Smart, Herbert Feigl, D. Armstrong, and David Lewis are prominent. The main thesis of this theory is-states and processes of the mind are identical to states and processes of the brain. In this paper, I am trying to delineate the view of Armstrong on the nature of mind.
Language: English


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Dr. Madhuchanda Chakraborty
Email: Madhuchanda.chakrabarty@gmail.com

Language: Hindi

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